Monday, 25 March 2013

R12 Directory Structure

R12 New Techstack and Directory Structure Change 


R12 New Techstack

There has been a specific directory structure and file structure that is followed in Oracle application. In the previous release till 11iCU2, there was some standard naming convention that is following. Each directory whether it’s a product top or form directory was having an organized path.
In the new oracle application release, E-Business suite R12, the file directory structure is changed. This doesn’t mean that there is no specific organization of files and directory. Off course the pattern for directories and file system is organized well, but it is different then the directory structure for the previous releases.
In this post we will check the changes in the directory structure organization and also the techstack level changes.
Why new structure
Lets us first answer to the question, as to why the new directory structure and file system was introduced, if at all, old file system and directory structure was flaw less and been working fine. And the answer to this is the need to separate E-business suite into three parts
  • Data
  • Code
  • Configuration
In many cases, configuration changes more frequently than code and data. So keeping it separately would result in easy maintenance.
Also, in a shared file system, MUTEX files, related to Apache, cause access related problems as IAS_ORACLE_HOME is mounted on NFS. With the new file structure, this issue is also resolved as all the configuration files can be stored on the local server instead of NFS.
Directory Structure Changes
In R12 the directory structure is as given below. Just after HOME, we have APPS directory and INST directory. APPS directory contains the APPL_TOP and also the installation of forms OH and application server 10g. The version for forms that is used in E-Business suits is 10g and also the application server used is 10g. The directory 10.1.2 belongs to form oracle home and directory 10.1.3 belongs to application server oracle home. Since these are the underlying technology they are grouped under TECH_ST. APPS_ST contains the APPL_TOP and COMMON_TOP. In apps11i the APPL_TOP directory used to have format <SID>appl, where as in R12 this has been changed as simply appl directory
Other then this there is one more directory at this level (INST). This is instance directory. We have a new environment variable in R12 called as INST_TOP, which points in this directory.
Instance top contains all the config files, log files, ssl certificates, document root etc.   This is a new directory introduced in R12TS. Addition of this directory makes the middle-tier more organized, since data is kept separate from config/log files. Another advantage is that, multiple instances can easily share the same middle tier / DB. To create a new instance that shares an existing middle-tier, just create a new instance_top with proper config files and nfs mount the middle tier in the server
The directory structure for apps11i is also shown. Here we have 3 top directory under HOME directory. These are <SID>appl (APPL_TOP as discussed previously), <SID>comn (COMMON_TOP) and <SID>ora (IAS_ORACLE_HOME for 9i Application server and forms ORACLE_HOME). Inside <SID>ora directory we have 8.0.6 directory, which is the ORACLE_HOME for forms, and iAS directory which is ORACLE_HOME for 9i Application server.
For the new E-Business suite, the structure on the database side is as shown in the fig
The database side consists of the base oracle directory, similar to appmgr directory. Inside oracle directory again we have the distinction of technology directory with data directory. We have APPS_ST and TECH_ST directories. APPS_ST contains data files for the database and TECH_ST is the ORACLE_HOME for oracle database 10g.
File System Changes
Here we will be comparing the major directory structure changes that happened between the old and new release.
JAVA_TOP changes
  • $JAVA_TOP = $COMMON_TOP/java
    • Class
    • Archives
  • $JAVA_TOP = $COMMON_TOP/java/classes
    • Classes
  • $AF_JLIB = $COMMON_TOP/java/lib
    • Archives
In case of 11i release the JAVA_TOP was pointing to COMMON_TOP / java directory, which consist of class and archive directories. The class directory consist of all the .class files where as archive directory consist of all jar files.
In R12 this has been changed and new JAVA_TOP directly points to COMMON_TOP / java / classes directory, which contains all .class files. For jar files we have another directory called lib. This contains JAR files. For pointing to this directory, there is another environment variable that is defined called AF_JLIB.
Techstack Level Changes
For Oracle Apps 11i we have following components version.
In R12 the components and versions are as given below.
Component Level Comparison
In case of new techstack some of the components got changed. Following is the brief comparison.
In case of 11i, Jserv engine was part of HTTP server and was used for JSP and Java requests. This has been replaced by OACORE (for handling JSP). Instead of Application server 9i used in 11i, in R12 we have Application server 10g.
INST_TOP Structure
Instance top contains all the config files, log files, ssl certificates, document root etc.   This is a new directory introduced in R12TS.    Addition of this directory makes the middle-tier more organized, since data is kept separate from config/log files.   Another advantage is that, multiple instances can easily share the same middle tier / DB.   To create a new instance that shares an existing middle-tier, just create a new instance_top with proper config files and nfs mount the middle tier in the server.
In 11i release all the config/log files was in COMMON_TOP. This has been shifted to INST_TOP. This is just to organize the application middle tire and to make a distinction between the core files and config/log files. Before checking the contents of INST_TOP, lets have a brief comparison of what was the content of COMMON_TOP in 11i release and R12. COMMON_TOP contains following directories.
So if we see the above comparison for the COMMON_TOP for 11i and R12, we see that there is only one directory, which is missing. This directory is admin directory. This directory is been shifted to INST_TOP. Also the log directory, which is still shown in COMMON_TOP, is no more used. There is another log directory in INST_TOP. This represents the logs for all the components of middle tier. Lets now see the structure of INST_TOP.
Here we see that we have some of the directories, which are same as directories in COMMON_TOP. So lets clear the confusion here as to which directory in which TOP is used for what purpose.
Actually the LOG, PORTAL and RGF directory in COMMON_TOP is not used. Instead these directories in INST_TOP are actually used. They are just the copies stored in COMMON_TOP. Also the admin directory is clearly moved to INST_TOP.
LOG directory contains the log files for all the components of mid tier like apache, oacore, opmn, and concurrent manager and also the logs for the AD-scripts used to manager various services.
CERTS directory is used for SSL certificates. In case of secured environment where secure certificates are used, the certificates should be downloaded in this directory.
PID directory contains the PID (process ID) for middle tier processes like apache.
APPL directory contains the 2 directories admin and fnd. ADMIN directory contains ojspCompile.conf and These files are important for JSP compilation and settings. FND directory contains the DBC file, which is required by the middle tier to connect to database. Actually the DBC file which used to be in $FND_TOP/secure directory location in the 11i release has been shifted to this location. This location is directly referred by an environment variable FND_SECURE. This was pointing to $FND_TOP/secure directory in 11i release. In R12 its pointing to $INST_TOP/appl/fnd/secure directory.
ORA directory indicated the techstack components. But an ORA directory in INST_TOP contains the configuration information of the techstack components. Lets look into the details of this directory.
ADMIN directory contains all the AD-scripts used to manage the middle tier components. ADMIN directory contains the SCRIPT directory, which has all the script. Actually these are the wrapper scripts over the main binary. We will see the details of these scripts when we explain each component. Following are the different AD-scripts and there function.
New Environment Variables in R12
Changes to existing environment Variables in R12
Hope this information will be helpful !! Thanks.

Wednesday, 20 March 2013


Applies to:

Oracle Cost Management - Version: 12.1.2 and later   [Release: 12.1 and later ]
Information in this document applies to any platform.


On : 12.1.2 version, Inventory Transactions

In Inventory Accounting Periods (INVTTGPM) when pressing Button Distributions,

the following error occurs.


FRM-41839 : Disk I/O error on temporary record buffer file /tmp/

Note: In R11i, only distributions for current period was displayed and it was correct.
In R12, it means that all distributions are displayed since the first day of the system.

The issue can be reproduced at will with the following steps:
1) Path: Inventory > Accounting Close Cycle > Inventory Accounting Periods
2) Place cursor on one Open or Close Period
3) Click on Button "Distributions"


Bad performance in Material Distribution for when called from the Accounting Close Cycle form by choosing a period and clicking on the distributions button.

Bug 9646715 - Bad performance of CSTFQITD when called from INVTTGPM


To implement the solution, please execute the following steps:

1. Download and review the readme and pre-requisites for Patch.9646715

2. Ensure that you have taken a backup of your system before applying the recommended patch.

3. Apply the patch in a test environment.

4. Confirm the following file versions:
    CSTFQITD.fmb 120.9.12010000.6
You can use the commands like the following:
strings -a $BOM_TOP/forms/US/CSTFQITD.fmx |grep '$Header'

5. Retest the issue.

6. Migrate the solution as appropriate to other environments.

Tuesday, 19 March 2013

Session time out

Change the session time out

1. Autoconfig variable s_oc4j_sesstimeout

2. Profile ICX:Session Timeout 

You can check $ORA_CONFIG_HOME/10.1.3/j2ee/oacore/application-deployments/oacore/html/orion-web.xml
where the value is maintained. The two values should be the same:  autoconfig variable s_sesstimeout / profile ICX:Session Timeout 

Profile Option : Session Timeout
set lines 400;
set pages 4000;

col profile_option_value format a25
col user_profile_option_name format a25
col Level format a14
select user_profile_option_name,
10007, 'ServResp',
level_id) "Level",
upper(user_profile_option_name) like upper('%ICX%%SESS%%TIME%')
fnd_profile_option_values.profile_option_id =

User's Status in the ICX_SESSIONS Table
col timeout format a8
col user_name format a10
col mins_idle format 999.99
  to_char(first_connect,'MM/DD/YYYY HH:MI:SS') Start_Time,
  to_char(sysdate,'HH:MI:SS') Current_Time,
  (SYSDATE-last_connect)*24*60 Mins_Idle,
    ) TimeOut
  ICX_SESSIONS a, fnd_User b
  and last_connect > sysdate-1/24;

Rewritten to pick just one user
col timeout format a8
col user_name format a10
col mins_idle format 999.99
  to_char(first_connect,'MM/DD/YYYY HH:MI:SS') Start_Time,
  to_char(sysdate,'HH:MI:SS') Current_Time,
  (SYSDATE-last_connect)*24*60 Mins_Idle,
   ) TimeOut
  ICX_SESSIONS a, fnd_User b
  and user_name='&USER_NAME_IN_UPPER_CASE';

The session timeout query is meant to be run again and again to confirm that a user's activity is being counted and can also be used for determining what activity is counted against the idle timeout and what is not.
For example, when practicing with this you may note that when a user is within core forms the ICX_SESSIONS table is not updated with every single click.
Instead, the update is made only if at least one minute has passed since the last update.  The session begins when the user logs into applications using the supported "AppsLogin" method, but there is no session created (and therefore never a timeout window) when logging in directly via the unsupported "/dev60cgi/f60cgi" URL. 

Column Specifics
D - The disabled flag. If this is set to 'Y', then the session has been explicitly disabled, such as from a user logging out. If this is 'N', then the session is not disabled.
START_TIME - The time of day the user first logged in.
CURRENT - The current time of day; useful when running the query repeatedly as this timestamps each query run.
USER_NAME - The login name of the user.
SESSION_ID - The session ID of the user. This can be confirmed from forms using the following navigation from the "System Administrator" responsibility:
- Help/Diagnostics/Examine
- - Block:$PROFILES$
- - Value: Click this field for the value to appear
(The value of my session_id=469704674 as seen in the above Detector1 query result)

MINS_IDLE - The perceived number of minutes that the user has been idle.
TIMEOUT - The value of "ICX:Session Timeout" for the specific user
The query, as written, will dump a listing of all users that have connected within the last hour. If different users have different values for "ICX: Session Timeout", then this will be immediately apparent. 

Profile Option Value of ICX:Session Timeout
upper(profile_option_name) = 'ICX_SESSION_TIMEOUT';

Setting ICX_SESSION_TIMEOUT to correspond to Jserv Session Timeout
set_profile(178, 'ICX_SESSION_TIMEOUT',
10001,   0,

Here is some additional information regarding timeouts within 11i Apps, specifically for the and the profile option.
1.  Edit $APACHE_TOP/Apache/Jserv/etc/ and set the session.timeout in miliseconds) : 

This is Apache Jserv Session timeout and should not be any higher than 30 minutes. Longer idle sessions will drain the JVM resources and can also cause out of memory errors.

2.  Login into Oracle Applications as SYSADMIN and search for profile ICX:Session Timeout; set this Profile Option to the same value as the one specified by session.timeout in
This is session timeout limit for Self Service Framework Applications and is specified in minutes. If the ICX session expires before the Jserv session, the user will be presented with a login page even though the Jserv session is still active. If the user logs back in before the Jserv session expires, they will see the old state of their middle-tier transaction. This can be confusing, since from the point of view of the user there is no distinction between the ICX session and the Jserv session

ICX: Limit time
ICX: Session timeout
The 2 profile options do the following:
"ICX: Limit time" = 8 >> This means that a session will last for 8 hours.
After that time the session will be closed "ICX:Session Timeout" = 180.
This means that after 3 hours of inactivity the session will be timed out.

TImeout Values
ICX: Session Timeout controls the time of inactivity of the session. If set to 30 minutes, then after no activity for 30 minutes you will get the popup window. This is for the Forms Session.
ICX:Limit Time controls the total time a session can be logged in. If set to 8 hours, then after 8 hours you will get the popup window regardless of what activity is being done This is for the Forms Session.
ICX:Limit connect is a profile option determines the max number of connection requests a user can make in a single session. If a user sends more requests than the value specified by this profile option in a single session, then the session will expire. This needs to be bumped up to 2000 +, because each time Session Time is checked it adds another ICX connection. This IS NOT DETERMEND BY THE NUMBER OF USER CONNECTIONS. The more ICX checks its self the more ICX connections you are going to see for a user.  
Session.timeout is set under the Apache's This should be set to default which is 1800000. Anything higher can result in performance and out of memory errors. Typically session.timeout and ICX:Session Timeout are set to the same value.  
FORMS60_TIMEOUT = 5 Check .env for this. This is used to clean up and terminate the Forms Processes. The higher this variable is set, the longer the Forms processes will take to be cleaned up.  
Heartbeat = 2 check $OA_HTML/bin/appsweb.cfg and or appsweb_<sid>_<host>.cfg. This is used to send a packet to the Server to indicate it is still active.  
Best Practices
The following are the best practice setup
1. Profile Options:
ICX: Session Timeout = 30
ICX:Limit Time = 12
ICX:Limit connect = 2000

2. Apache
session.timeout = 1800000
Under Apache_Top:
$ grep -i session.timeout


Session.timeout is what controls the Self Service Timeout. If this times out, you will not be prompted to log back in and will receive a JSP/WEB type error message.

3. Modify the $FORMS60_WEB_CONFIG_FILE, which points to the appsweb_host_sid.cfg file:
heartbeat =2

Under OA_HTML/bin:
$ grep -i heartbeat appsweb.cfg


$ grep -i heartbeat appsweb_<SID>_auohs<host>.cfg


5. If using Forms servlets check the following:
Check formservlet.ini in Apache for FORMS60_TIMEOUT=5
To check if using servlets look for the line in jserv.conf file:
#ApJServGroup FormsGroup 1 1 /u02/oracle/visora/iAS/Apache/Jserv/etc/
If using servlets this line will be uncommented.

Check also the appsweb.cfg under OA_HTML/bin for line:
; serverURL=/forms/formservlet

If using servlets this line will be uncommented.

$ grep -i forms60_timeout formservlet.ini

6. FORMS60_TIMEOUT = 5 (check SID.env for this or echo$FORMS60_TIMEOUT)
Heartbeat = 2 (check $OA_HTML/bin/appsweb.cfg)

Note: There can be two different errors that affect the FROMS60_TIMEOUT and the heartbeat. If there are Intermittent FRM-92100 type errors it is due to the heartbeat being to high and timing out. So the heartbeat setting will need to be adjusted to suit your needs. If the FORMS60_TIMEOUT is set to a higher value you may see run away f60webmx processes. If there are run away f60webmx or f60webmx processes not terminating, then return the FORMS60_TIMEOUT to the default value of 5 and retest.
7. Bounce Forms Server.

8. Clear Apache cache $OA_HTML/_pages

9. Bounce Apache Server.

You have to pass the UNIX process id to this script.------Cut here---------

column "User Name" format a10  
column "ClPID" format a8    

select   d.user_name "User Name",          
b.sid SID,b.serial# "Serial#", 
c.spid "srvPID", a.SPID "ClPID",         
to_char(START_TIME,'DD-MON-YY HH:MM:SS') "STime"  
from fnd_logins a, v$session b, v$process c, 
fnd_user d  
where  b.paddr = c.addr  and  
and a.spid = b.process  and d.user_id = a.user_id  
and (d.user_name = 'USER_NAME' OR 1=1)  
and a.SPID = &PID    

-----------------------------Script ends here--------------------------

OC4J session timeout, if not set, defaults to 20 minutes. This will cause the oc4j session to timeout
before the Apps/ Forms session timeout which is defined by profile option "ICX: Session Timeout"

1. Edit the <CONTEXT_NAME>.xml file in $INST_TOP/appl/admin directory

2. Ensure that value of profile option "ICX: Session Timeout" and autoconfig variable "s_oc4j_sesstimeout" in context file match.
In case you need the session to timeout after 2 hrs then the profile option "ICX: Session Timeout" and autoconfig variable "s_oc4j_sesstimeout" should be set to 120
3. Run autoconfig

Changed the s_oc4j_sesstimeout to 2700000 (45 * 60 * 1000)
Change the s_oc4j_sesstimeout changed from 2700000 to 45 minutes in the $CONTEXT_FILE
In R12 the session-timeout (s_oc4j_sesstimeout) is expressed in minutes in

In R11i the session.timeout is represented in mili-seconds

1. Change the s_oc4j_sesstimeout changed from 2700000 to 45 minutes in the $CONTEXT_FILE
2. Run Autoconfig

a) Set "ICX: Session Timeout" profile option value
b) Set "OC4J Session Timeout" in orion-web.xml
c) Set Timeout in httpd.conf.

3. Increase the JVM heap size to 512/1024 depending on the current value in the configuration file
for the oacore process

1. Increase heap size of both concurrent program and oacore process.

Please ensure that your heap size is at least -Xmx512m -Xms256m

To Increase Heap Size of concurrent program:

1. Navigate to the form System Administrator > Concurrent > Program > Define
2. In this form query the
Program : "Publish and Presentation Program" and

3. In the resulting record check the Executable properties are
Method : "Java Concurrent Program"

4. In the "Options" field of Executable properties enter the following
java options
-Xmx512m -Xms128m
and save the record.

This specifies the maximum and initial heap sizes:
-Xmx512M - Maximum heap size
-Xms128M - Initial heap size

5. Bounce the CM, DB Listener, and Apache Server

To Increase Heap Size of oacore process:

1. Locate the file $ORA_CONFIG_HOME/10.1.3/opmn/conf/opmn.xml
2. In the file,
<process-type id="oacore" module-id="OC4J" status="enabled"
<category id="start-parameters">
<data id="java-options" value="-server -verbose:gc -Xmx1024M
-Xms256M -XX:MaxPermSize=160M

oacore java-options
-Xmx1024M - Specifies maximum heap memory.(1024 MB)
-Xms256M - Initial heap memory.(256 MB)
Please increase the values to resolve out of memory error.

3.  Bounce the Concurrent Manager, Database Listener, and Apache Server.

If the report still fails with the java heap space errors, change parameter Maximum heap size to -Xmx1024M or -Xmx2048m based on your hardware compatibility
FND:Debug Log
elect p.profile_option_name SHORT_NAME,
n.user_profile_option_name NAME,
10001, 'Site',
10002, 'Application',
10003, 'Responsibility',
10004, 'User',
10005, 'Server',
10007, 'SERVRESP',
'10001', '',
'10002', app.application_short_name,
'10003', rsp.responsibility_key,
'10005', svr.node_name,
'10004', usr.user_name,
'10007', 'Serv/resp',
'UnDef') "CONTEXT",
v.profile_option_value VALUE
from fnd_profile_options p,
fnd_profile_option_values v,
fnd_profile_options_tl n,
fnd_user usr,
fnd_application app,
fnd_responsibility rsp,
fnd_nodes svr,
hr_operating_units org
where p.profile_option_id = v.profile_option_id (+)
and p.profile_option_name = n.profile_option_name
and upper(n.user_profile_option_name) like upper('%FND%DEBUG%')
and usr.user_id (+) = v.level_value
and rsp.application_id (+) = v.level_value_application_id
and rsp.responsibility_id (+) = v.level_value
and app.application_id (+) = v.level_value
and svr.node_id (+) = v.level_value
and org.organization_id (+) = v.level_value
order by short_name, level_set;

This document is a how to find the Oracle Applications username for a Forms
How To Identify The apps User Using The O/S PID For Forms Users In 11i
You have to pass the UNIX process id to this script.  
------------------------------------Cut here--------------------------  

column "User Name" format a10  
column "ClPID" format a8    
select   d.user_name "User Name",          
b.sid SID,b.serial# "Serial#", c.spid "srvPID", 
a.SPID "ClPID",         to_char(START_TIME,'DD-MON-YY HH:MM:SS') "STime"  
from   fnd_logins a, v$session b, v$process c, fnd_user d  
where  b.paddr = c.addr  and  and a.spid = b.process  
and d.user_id = a.user_id  and (d.user_name = 'USER_NAME' OR 1=1)  
and a.SPID = &PID    

-----------------------------Script ends here-------------------------- 

substr(t.PROFILE_OPTION_NAME,0,20) User_Profile,
substr(v.PROFILE_OPTION_VALUE,0,60) Value
from fnd_profile_options t,
fnd_profile_option_values v
where t.profile_option_name = 'ICX_FORMS_LAUNCHER'
and t.profile_option_id = v.profile_option_id;

HR Interview Questions & Answers

HR Interview Questions & Answers

Tell me about yourself?
Start with the present and tell why you are well qualified for the position. Remember that the
key to all successful interviewing is to match your qualifications to what the interviewer is
looking for. In other words you must sell what the buyer is buying. This is the single most
important strategy in job hunting.
So, before you answer this or any question it's imperative that you try to uncover your
interviewer's greatest need, want, problem or goal.
To do so, make you take these two steps:
Do all the homework you can before the hr interview to uncover this person's wants and needs
(not the generalized needs of the industry or company)
As early as you can in the interview, ask for a more complete description of what the position
entails. You might say: “I have a number of accomplishments I'd like to tell you about, but I want
to make the best use of our time together and talk directly to your needs. To help me do, that,
could you tell me more about the most important priorities of this position? All I know is what I
(heard from the recruiter, read in the classified ad, etc
Then, ALWAYS follow-up with a second and possibly, third question, to draw out his needs even
more. Surprisingly, it's usually this second or third question that unearths what the interviewer
is most looking for.
You might ask simply, "And in addition to that?..." or, "Is there anything else you see as essential
to success in this position?:
This process will not feel easy or natural at first, because it is easier simply to answer questions,
but only if you uncover the employer's wants and needs will your answers make the most sense.
Practice asking these key questions before giving your answers, the process will feel more
natural and you will be light years ahead of the other job candidates you're competing with.
After uncovering what the employer is looking for, describe why the needs of this job bear
striking parallels to tasks you've succeeded at before. Be sure to illustrate with specific examples
of your responsibilities and especially your achievements, all of which are geared to present
yourself as a perfect match for the needs he has just described.
What are your greatest strengths?
You know that your key strategy is to first uncover your interviewer's greatest wants and needs
before you answer questions. And from Question 1, you know how to do this.
Prior to any interview, you should have a list mentally prepared of your greatest strengths. You
should also have, a specific example or two, which illustrates each strength, an example chosen
from your most recent and most impressive achievements.
You should, have this list of your greatest strengths and corresponding examples from your
achievements so well committed to memory that you can recite them cold after being shaken
awake at 2:30AM.
Then, once you uncover your interviewer's greatest wants and needs, you can choose those
achievements from your list that best match up.
As a general guideline, the 10 most desirable traits that all employers love to see in their
employees are:
A proven track record as an achiever...especially if your achievements match up with the
employer's greatest wants and needs. "savvy".
Honesty...integrity...a decent human being.
Good fit with corporate culture...someone to feel comfortable with...a team player who meshes
well with interviewer's team.
Likeability...positive attitude...sense of humor.
Good communication skills.
Dedication...willingness to walk the extra mile to achieve excellence.
Definiteness of purpose...clear goals.
Enthusiasm...high level of motivation.
Confident...healthy...a leader.
What are your greatest weaknesses?
Disguise strength as a weakness.
Example: “I sometimes push my people too hard. I like to work with a sense of urgency and
everyone is not always on the same wavelength.
Drawback: This strategy is better than admitting a flaw, but it's so widely used, it is transparent
to any experienced interviewer.
BEST ANSWER: (and another reason it's so important to get a thorough description of your
interviewer's needs before you answer questions): Assure the interviewer that you can think of
nothing that would stand in the way of your performing in this position with excellence. Then,
quickly review you strongest qualifications.
Example: “Nobody's perfect, but based on what you've told me about this position, I believe I' d
make an outstanding match. I know that when I hire people, I look for two things most of all. Do
they have the qualifications to do the job well, and the motivation to do it well? Everything in
my background shows I have both the qualifications and a strong desire to achieve excellence in
whatever I take on. So I can say in all honesty that I see nothing that would cause you even a
small concern about my ability or my strong desire to perform this job with excellence.”
Alternate strategy (if you don't yet know enough about the position to talk about such a perfect
Instead of confessing a weakness, describe what you like most and like least, making sure that
what you like most matches up with the most important qualification for success in the position,
and what you like least is not essential.
Example: Let's say you're applying for a teaching position. “If given a choice, I like to spend as
much time as possible in front of my prospects selling, as opposed to shuffling paperwork back
at the office. Of course, I long ago learned the importance of filing paperwork properly, and I do
it conscientiously. But what I really love to do is sell (if your interviewer were a sales manager,
this should be music to his ears.)
Tell me about something you did – or failed to do – that you now feel a little ashamed of ?As
with faults and weaknesses, never confess a regret. But don’t seem as if you’re stonewalling
Best strategy: Say you harbor no regrets, then add a principle or habit you practice regularly for
healthy human relations.
Example: Pause for reflection, as if the question never occurred to you. Then say to hr, “You
know, I really can’t think of anything.” (Pause again, then add): “I would add that as a general
management principle, I’ve found that the best way to avoid regrets is to avoid causing them in
the first place. I practice one habit that helps me a great deal in this regard. At the end of each
day, I mentally review the day’s events and conversations to take a second look at the people
and developments I’m involved with and do a double check of what they’re likely to be feeling.
Sometimes I’ll see things that do need more follow-up, whether a pat on the back, or maybe a
five minute chat in someone’s office to make sure we’re clear on things…whatever.
“I also like to make each person feel like a member of an elite team, like the Boston Celtics or LA
Lakers in their prime. I’ve found that if you let each team member know you expect excellence
in their performance…if you work hard to set an example yourself…and if you let people know
you appreciate and respect their feelings, you wind up with a highly motivated group, a team
that’s having fun at work because they’re striving for excellence rather than brooding over
slights or regrets.”
Why are you leaving (or did you leave) this position ?
(If you have a job presently tell the hr)
If you’re not yet 100% committed to leaving your present post, don’t be afraid to say so. Since
you have a job, you are in a stronger position than someone who does not. But don’t be coy
either. State honestly what you’d be hoping to find in a new spot. Of course, as stated often
before, you answer will all the stronger if you have already uncovered what this position is all
about and you match your desires to it.
(If you do not presently have a job tell the hr.)
Never lie about having been fired. It’s unethical – and too easily checked. But do try to deflect
the reason from you personally. If your firing was the result of a takeover, merger, division wide
layoff, etc., so much the better.
But you should also do something totally unnatural that will demonstrate consummate
professionalism. Even if it hurts , describe your own firing – candidly, succinctly and without a
trace of bitterness – from the company’s point-of-view, indicating that you could understand
why it happened and you might have made the same decision yourself.
Your stature will rise immensely and, most important of all, you will show you are healed from
the wounds inflicted by the firing. You will enhance your image as first-class management
material and stand head and shoulders above the legions of firing victims who, at the slightest
provocation, zip open their shirts to expose their battle scars and decry the unfairness of it all.
For all prior positions:
Make sure you’ve prepared a brief reason for leaving. Best reasons: more money, opportunity,
responsibility or growth.
The "Silent Treatment"
Like a primitive tribal mask, the Silent Treatment loses all it power to frighten you once you
refuse to be intimidated. If your interviewer pulls it, keep quiet yourself for a while and then ask,
with sincere politeness and not a trace of sarcasm, “Is there anything else I can fill in on that
point?” That’s all there is to it.
Whatever you do, don’t let the Silent Treatment intimidate you into talking a blue streak,
because you could easily talk yourself out of the position.
Why should I hire you?
By now you can see how critical it is to apply the overall strategy of uncovering the employer’s
needs before you answer questions. If you know the employer’s greatest needs and desires, this
question will give you a big leg up over other candidates because you will give him better
reasons for hiring you than anyone else is likely to…reasons tied directly to his needs.
Whether your interviewer asks you this question explicitly or not, this is the most important
question of your interview because he must answer this question favorably in is own mind
before you will be hired. So help him out! Walk through each of the position’s requirements as
you understand them, and follow each with a reason why you meet that requirement so well.
Example: “As I understand your needs, you are first and foremost looking for someone who can
manage the sales and marketing of your book publishing division. As you’ve said you need
someone with a strong background in trade book sales. This is where I’ve spent almost all of my
career, so I’ve chalked up 18 years of experience exactly in this area. I believe that I know the
right contacts, methods, principles, and successful management techniques as well as any
person can in our industry.”
“You also need someone who can expand your book distribution channels. In my prior post, my
innovative promotional ideas doubled, then tripled, the number of outlets selling our books. I’m
confident I can do the same for you.”
“You need someone to give a new shot in the arm to your mail order sales, someone who knows
how to sell in space and direct mail media. Here, too, I believe I have exactly the experience you
need. In the last five years, I’ve increased our mail order book sales from $600,000 to
$2,800,000, and now we’re the country’s second leading marketer of scientific and medical
books by mail.” Etc., etc., etc.,
Every one of these selling “couplets” (his need matched by your qualifications) is a touchdown
that runs up your score. IT is your best opportunity to outsell your competition.
Aren’t you overqualified for this position?
As with any objection, don’t view this as a sign of imminent defeat. It’s an invitation to teach the
interviewer a new way to think about this situation, seeing advantages instead of drawbacks.
Example: “I recognize the job market for what it is – a marketplace. Like any marketplace, it’s
subject to the laws of supply and demand. So ‘overqualified’ can be a relative term, depending
on how tight the job market is. And right now, it’s very tight. I understand and accept that.”
“I also believe that there could be very positive benefits for both of us in this match.”
“Because of my unusually strong experience in ________________ , I could start to contribute
right away, perhaps much faster than someone who’d have to be brought along more slowly.”
“There’s also the value of all the training and years of experience that other companies have
invested tens of thousands of dollars to give me. You’d be getting all the value of that without
having to pay an extra dime for it. With someone who has yet to acquire that experience, he’d
have to gain it on your nickel.”
“I could also help you in many things they don’t teach at the Harvard Business School. For
example…(how to hire, train, motivate, etc.) When it comes to knowing how to work well with
people and getting the most out of them, there’s just no substitute for what you learn over
many years of front-line experience. You company would gain all this, too.”
“From my side, there are strong benefits, as well. Right now, I am unemployed. I want to work,
very much, and the position you have here is exactly what I love to do and am best at. I’ll be
happy doing this work and that’s what matters most to me, a lot more that money or title.”
“Most important, I’m looking to make a long term commitment in my career now. I’ve had
enough of job-hunting and want a permanent spot at this point in my career. I also know that if I
perform this job with excellence, other opportunities cannot help but open up for me right here.
In time, I’ll find many other ways to help this company and in so doing, help myself. I really am
looking to make a long-term commitment.”
NOTE: The main concern behind the “overqualified” question is that you will leave your new
employer as soon as something better comes your way. Anything you can say to demonstrate
the sincerity of your commitment to the employer and reassure him that you’re looking to stay
for the long-term will help you overcome this objection.
Where do you see yourself five years from now?
Reassure your interviewer that you’re looking to make a long-term commitment…that this
position entails exactly what you’re looking to do and what you do extremely well. As for your
future, you believe that if you perform each job at hand with excellence, future opportunities
will take care of themselves.
Example: “I am definitely interested in making a long-term commitment to my next position.
Judging by what you’ve told me about this position, it’s exactly what I’m looking for and what  am very well qualified to do. In terms of my future career path, I’m confident that if I do my
work with excellence, opportunities will inevitable open up for me. It’s always been that way in
my career, and I’m confident I’ll have similar opportunities here.”
Describe your ideal company, location and job.
The only right answer is to describe what this company is offering, being sure to make your
answer believable with specific reasons, stated with sincerity, why each quality represented by
this opportunity is attractive to you.
Remember that if you’re coming from a company that’s the leader in its field or from a
glamorous or much admired company, industry, city or position, your interviewer and his
company may well have an “Avis” complex. That is, they may feel a bit defensive about being
“second best” to the place you’re coming from, worried that you may consider them bush
This anxiety could well be there even though you’ve done nothing to inspire it. You must go out
of your way to assuage such anxiety, even if it’s not expressed, by putting their virtues high on
the list of exactly what you’re looking for, providing credible reason for wanting these qualities.
If you do not express genuine enthusiasm for the firm, its culture, location, industry, etc., you
may fail to answer this “Avis” complex objection and, as a result, leave the interviewer
suspecting that a hot shot like you, coming from a Fortune 500 company in New York, just
wouldn’t be happy at an unknown manufacturer based in Topeka, Kansas.
Why do you want to work at our company?
This question is your opportunity to hit the ball out of the park, thanks to the in-depth research
you should do before any interview.
Best sources for researching your target company: annual reports, the corporate newsletter,
contacts you know at the company or its suppliers, advertisements, articles about the company
in the trade press.
What are your career options right now?
Prepare for this question by thinking of how you can position yourself as a desired commodity. If
you are still working, describe the possibilities at your present firm and why, though you’re
greatly appreciated there, you’re looking for something more (challenge, money, responsibility,
etc.). Also mention that you’re seriously exploring opportunities with one or two other firms.
If you’re not working, you can talk about other employment possibilities you’re actually
exploring. But do this with a light touch, speaking only in general terms. You don’t want to seem
manipulative or coy.
Why have you been out of work so long ?
You want to emphasize factors which have prolonged your job search by your own choice.
Example: “After my job was terminated, I made a conscious decision not to jump on the first
opportunities to come along. In my life, I’ve found out that you can always turn a negative into a
positive IF you try hard enough. This is what I determined to do. I decided to take whatever time
I needed to think through what I do best, what I most want to do, where I’d like to do it…and
then identify those companies that could offer such an opportunity.”
“Also, in all honesty, you have to factor in the recession (consolidation, stabilization, etc.) in the
(banking, financial services, manufacturing, advertising, etc.) industry.”
“So between my being selective and the companies in our industry downsizing, the process has
taken time. But in the end, I’m convinced that when I do find the right match, all that careful
evaluation from both sides of the desk will have been well worthwhile for both the company
that hires me and myself.
Tell me honestly about the strong points and weak points of your boss (company,
management team, etc.)
Remember the rule: Never be negative. Stress only the good points, no matter how charmingly
you’re invited to be critical.
Your interviewer doesn’t care a whit about your previous boss. He wants to find out how loyal
and positive you are, and whether you’ll criticize him behind his back if pressed to do so by
someone in this own company. This question is your opportunity to demonstrate your loyalty to
those you work with.
What good books have you read lately?
Unless you’re up for a position in academia or as book critic for The New York Times, you’re not
expected to be a literary lion. But it wouldn’t hurt to have read a handful of the most recent and
influential books in your profession and on management.
Consider it part of the work of your job search to read up on a few of these leading books. But
make sure they are quality books that reflect favorably upon you, nothing that could even
remotely be considered superficial. Finally, add a recently published bestselling work of fiction
by a world-class author and you’ll pass this question with flying colors.
Tell me about a situation when your work was criticized?
Begin by emphasizing the extremely positive feedback you’ve gotten throughout your career
and (if it’s true) that your performance reviews have been uniformly excellent.
Of course, no one is perfect and you always welcome suggestions on how to improve your
performance. Then, give an example of a not-too-damaging learning experience from early in
your career and relate the ways this lesson has since helped you. This demonstrates that you
learned from the experience and the lesson is now one of the strongest breastplates in your suit
of armor.
If you are pressed for a criticism from a recent position, choose something fairly trivial that in no
way is essential to your successful performance. Add that you’ve learned from this, too, and
over the past several years/months, it’s no longer an area of concern because you now make it a
regular practice to…etc.
Another way to answer this question would be to describe your intention to broaden your
master of an area of growing importance in your field. For example, this might be a computer
program you’ve been meaning to sit down and learn… a new management technique you’ve
read about…or perhaps attending a seminar on some cutting-edge branch of your profession.
Again, the key is to focus on something not essential to your brilliant performance but which
adds yet another dimension to your already impressive knowledge base.
What are your outside interests ?
Try to gauge how this company’s culture would look upon your favorite outside activities and be
guided accordingly.
You can also use this question to shatter any stereotypes that could limit your chances. If you’re
over 50, for example, describe your activities that demonstrate physical stamina. If you’re
young, mention an activity that connotes wisdom and institutional trust, such as serving on the
board of a popular charity.
But above all, remember that your employer is hiring your for what you can do for him, not your
family, yourself or outside organizations, no matter how admirable those activities may be.
As every master salesperson knows, you will encounter objections (whether stated or merely
thought) in every sale. They’re part and parcel of the buyer’s anxiety. The key is not to
exacerbate the buyer’s anxiety but diminish it. Here’s how…
Whenever you come up against a fatal flaw question:
Be completely honest, open and straightforward about admitting the shortcoming. (Showing
you have nothing to hide diminishes the buyer’s anxiety.)
Do not apologize or try to explain it away. You know that this supposed flaw is nothing to be
concerned about, and this is the attitude you want your interviewer to adopt as well.
Add that as desirable as such a qualification might be, its lack has made you work all the harder
throughout your career and has not prevented you from compiling an outstanding tack record
of achievements. You might even give examples of how, through a relentless commitment to
excellence, you have consistently outperformed those who do have this qualification.
Of course, the ultimate way to handle “fatal flaw” questions is to prevent them from arising in
the first place. You will do that by following the master strategy described in Question 1, i.e.,
uncovering the employers needs and them matching your qualifications to those needs.
Once you’ve gotten the employer to start talking about his most urgently-felt wants and goals
for the position, and then help him see in step-by-step fashion how perfectly your background
and achievements match up with those needs, you’re going to have one very enthusiastic
interviewer on your hands, one who is no longer looking for “fatal flaws”.
How do you feel about reporting to a younger person (minority, woman, etc)?
You greatly admire a company that hires and promotes on merit alone and you couldn’t agree
more with that philosophy. The age (gender, race, etc.) of the person you report to would
certainly make no difference to you.
Whoever has that position has obviously earned it and knows their job well. Both the person
and the position are fully deserving of respect. You believe that all people in a company, from
the receptionist to the Chairman, work best when their abilities, efforts and feelings are
respected and rewarded fairly, and that includes you. That’s the best type of work environment
you can hope to find.
On confidential matters…
Your interviewer may press you for this information for two reasons.
First, many companies use interviews to research the competition. It’s a perfect set-up. Here in
their own lair, is an insider from the enemy camp who can reveal prized information on the
competition’s plans, research, financial condition, etc.
Second, the company may be testing your integrity to see if you can be cajoled or bullied into
revealing confidential data.
What to do? The answer here is easy. 
Never reveal anything truly confidential about a present
or former employer. By all means, explain your reticence diplomatically. 
For example, “I
certainly want to be as open as I can about that. But I also wish to respect the rights of those
who have trusted me with their most sensitive information, just as you would hope to be able to
trust any of your key people when talking with a competitor…”
And certainly you can allude to your finest achievements in specific ways that don’t reveal the
combination to the company safe.
But be guided by the golden rule. If you were the owner of your present company, would you
feel it ethically wrong for the information to be given to your competitors? If so, steadfastly
refuse to reveal it.
Remember that this question pits your desire to be cooperative against your integrity. Faced
with any such choice, always choose integrity. It is a far more valuable commodity than
whatever information the company may pry from you. Moreover, once you surrender the
information, your stock goes down. They will surely lose respect for you.
One President we know always presses candidates unmercifully for confidential information. If
he doesn’t get it, he grows visibly annoyed, relentlessly inquisitive, It’s all an act. He couldn’t
care less about the information. This is his way of testing the candidate’s moral fiber. Only those
who hold fast are hired.
What would you say to your boss if he’s crazy about an idea, but you think it stinks ?
Remember the rule stated earlier: In any conflict between values, always choose integrity.
Example: I believe that when evaluating anything, it’s important to emphasize the positive.
What do I like about this idea?”
“Then, if you have reservations, I certainly want to point them out, as specifically, objectively
and factually as I can.”
“After all, the most important thing I owe my boss is honesty. If he can’t count on me for that,
then everything else I may do or say could be questionable in his eyes.
“But I also want to express my thoughts in a constructive way. So my goal in this case would be
to see if my boss and I could make his idea even stronger and more appealing, so that it
effectively overcomes any initial reservation I or others may have about it.”
“Of course, if he overrules me and says, ‘no, let’s do it my way,’ then I owe him my full and
enthusiastic support to make it work as best it can.”
How could you have improved your career progress?
You’re generally quite happy with your career progress. Maybe, if you had known something
earlier in life (impossible to know at the time, such as the booming growth in a branch in your
industry…or the corporate downsizing that would phase out your last job), you might have
moved in a certain direction sooner.
But all things considered, you take responsibility for where you are, how you’ve gotten there,
where you are going…and you harbor no regrets.
What would you do if a fellow executive on your own corporate level wasn’t pulling his/her weight…and this was hurting your department?
Try to gauge the political style of the firm and be guided accordingly. In general, fall back on
universal principles of effective human relations – which in the end, embody the way you would
like to be treated in a similar circumstance.
Example: “Good human relations would call for me to go directly to the person and explain the
situation, to try to enlist his help in a constructive, positive solution. If I sensed resistance, I
would be as persuasive as I know how to explain the benefits we can all gain from working
together, and the problems we, the company and our customers will experience if we don’t.”
And what would you do if he still did not change his ways?
ANSWER: “One thing I wouldn’t do is let the problem slide, because it would only get worse and
overlooking it would set a bad precedent. I would try again and again and again, in whatever
way I could, to solve the problem, involving wider and wider circles of people, both above and
below the offending executive and including my own boss if necessary, so that everyone
involved can see the rewards for teamwork and the drawbacks of non-cooperation.
“I might add that I’ve never yet come across a situation that couldn’t be resolved by harnessing
others in a determined, constructive effort.”
You’ve been with your firm a long time. Won’t it be hard switching to a new
To overcome this objection, you must point to the many ways you have grown and adapted to
changing conditions at your present firm. It has not been a static situation. Highlight the
different responsibilities you’ve held, the wide array of new situations you’ve faced and
As a result, you’ve learned to adapt quickly to whatever is thrown at you, and you thrive on the
stimulation of new challenges.
To further assure the interviewer, describe the similarities between the new position and your
prior one. Explain that you should be quite comfortable working there, since their needs and
your skills make a perfect match.
May I contact your present employer for a reference?
Express your concern that you’d like to keep your job search private, but that in time, it will be
perfectly okay.
Example: “My present employer is not aware of my job search and, for obvious reasons; I’d
prefer to keep it that way. I’d be most appreciative if we kept our discussion confidential right
now. Of course, when we both agree the time is right, then by all means you should contact
them. I’m very proud of my record there.
Give me an example of your creativity (analytical skill…managing ability, etc.)
Remember from Question 2 that you should commit to memory a list of your greatest and most
recent achievements, ever ready on the tip of your tongue.
If you have such a list, it’s easy to present any of your achievements in light of the quality the
interviewer is asking about. 
For example, the smashing success you orchestrated at last year’s
trade show could be used as an example of creativity, or analytical ability, or your ability to
Where could you use some improvement?
Keep this answer, like all your answers, positive. A good way to answer this question is to
identify a cutting-edge branch of your profession (one that’s not essential to your employer’s
needs) as an area you’re very excited about and want to explore more fully over the next six
What do you worry about?
Redefine the word ‘worry’ so that it does not reflect negatively on you.
Example: “I wouldn’t call it worry, but I am a strongly goal-oriented person. So I keep turning
over in my mind anything that seems to be keeping me from achieving those goals, until I find a
solution. That’s part of my tenacity, I suppose.”
I’m concerned that you don’t have as much experience as we’d like in...
This question is related to “The Fatal Flaw” , but here the concern is not that you are totally
missing some qualifications, such as CPA certification, but rather that your experience is light in
one area.
Before going into any interview, try to identify the weakest aspects of your candidacy from this
company’s point of view. Then prepare the best answer you possible can to shore up your
To get past this question with flying colors, you are going to rely on your master strategy of
uncovering the employer’s greatest wants and needs and then matching them with your
strengths. Since you already know how to do this from Question 1, you are in a much stronger
More specifically, when the interviewer poses as objection like this, you should…
Agree on the importance of this qualification.
Explain that your strength may be indeed be greater than your resume indicates because…
When this strength is added to your other strengths, it’s really your combination of
qualifications that’s most important.
Then review the areas of your greatest strengths that match up most favorably with the
company’s most urgently-felt wants and needs.
This is powerful way to handle this question for two reasons. First, you’re giving your
interviewer more ammunition in the area of his concern. But more importantly, you’re shifting
his focus away from this one, isolated area and putting it on the unique combination of
strengths you offer, strengths which tie in perfectly with his greatest wants.
How do you feel about working nights and weekends?
First, if you’re a confirmed workaholic, this question is a softball lob. Whack it out of the park on
the first swing by saying this kind of schedule is just your style. Add that your family understands
it. Indeed, they’re happy for you, as they know you get your greatest satisfaction from your
If however, you prefer a more balanced lifestyle, answer this question with another: “What’s the
norm for your best people here?”
If the hours still sound unrealistic for you, ask, “Do you have any top people who perform
exceptionally for you, but who also have families and like to get home in time to see them at
night?” Chances are this company does, and this associates you with this other “top-performerswho-leave-not-later-than-six” group.
Depending on the answer, be honest about how you would fit into the picture. If all those extra
hours make you uncomfortable, say so, but phrase your response positively.
Example: “I love my work and do it exceptionally well. I think the results speak for themselves,
especially in …(mention your two or three qualifications of greater interest to the employer.
Remember, this is what he wants most, not a workaholic with weak credentials). Not only would
I bring these qualities, but I’ve built my whole career on working not just hard, but smart. I think
you’ll find me one of the most productive people here.
I do have a family who likes to see me after work and on weekends. They add balance and
richness to my life, which in turn helps me be happy and productive at work. If I could handle
some of the extra work at home in the evenings or on weekends, that would be ideal. You’d be
getting a person of exceptional productivity who meets your needs with strong credentials. And
I’d be able to handle some of the heavy workload at home where I can be under the same roof
as my family. Everybody would win.”
Are you willing to relocate or travel?
First find out where you may have to relocate and how much travel may be involved. Then
respond to the question.
If there’s no problem, say so enthusiastically.
If you do have a reservation, there are two schools of thought on how to handle it.
One advises you to keep your options open and your reservations to yourself in the early going,
by saying, “no problem”. You strategy here is to get the best offer you can, then make a
judgment whether it’s worth it to you to relocate or travel.
Also, by the time the offer comes through, you may have other offers and can make a more
informed decision. Why kill of this opportunity before it has chance to blossom into something
really special? And if you’re a little more desperate three months from now, you might wish you
hadn’t slammed the door on relocating or traveling.
The second way to handle this question is to voice a reservation, but assert that you’d be open
to relocating (or traveling) for the right opportunity.
The answering strategy you choose depends on how eager you are for the job. If you want to
take no chances, choose the first approach.
If you want to play a little harder-to-get in hopes of generating a more enticing offer, choose the
Do you have the stomach to fire people? Have you had experience firing many
people? Describe the rational and sensible management process you follow in both
hiring and firing.
Example: “My whole management approach is to hire the best people I can find, train them
thoroughly and well, get them excited and proud to be part of our team, and then work with
them to achieve our goals together. If you do all of that right, especially hiring the right people,
I’ve found you don’t have to fire very often.
“So with me, firing is a last resort. But when it’s got to be done, it’s got to be done, and the
faster and cleaner, the better. A poor employee can wreak terrible damage in undermining the
morale of an entire team of good people. When there’s no other way, I’ve found it’s better for
all concerned to act decisively in getting rid of offenders who won’t change their ways.”
Why have you had so many jobs?
First, before you even get to the interview stage, you should try to minimize your image as job
hopper. If there are several entries on your resume of less than one year, consider eliminating
the less important ones. Perhaps you can specify the time you spent at previous positions in
rounded years not in months and years.
Example: Instead of showing three positions this way:
6/1982 – 3/1983, Position A;
4/1983 – 12/1983, Position B;
1/1984 – 8/1987, Position C;
…it would be better to show simply:
1982 – 1983, Position A;
1984 – 1987 Position C.
In other words, you would drop Position B altogether. Notice what a difference this makes in
reducing your image as a job hopper.
Once in front of the interviewer and this question comes up, you must try to reassure him.
Describe each position as part of an overall pattern of growth and career destination.
Be careful not to blame other people for your frequent changes. But you can and should
attribute certain changes to conditions beyond your control.
Example: Thanks to an upcoming merger, you wanted to avoid an ensuing bloodbath, so you
made a good, upward career move before your department came under the axe of the new
If possible, also show that your job changes were more frequent in your younger days, while you
were establishing yourself, rounding out your skills and looking for the right career path. At this
stage in your career, you’re certainly much more interested in the best long-term opportunity.
You might also cite the job where you stayed the longest and describe that this type of situation
is what you’re looking for now.
What do you see as the proper role/mission of…
…a good (job title you’re seeking);
…a good manager;
…an executive in serving the community;
…a leading company in our industry; etc.
Think of the most essential ingredients of success for each category above – your job title, your
role as manager, your firm’s role, etc.
Identify at least three but no more than six qualities you feel are most important to success in
each role. Then commit your response to memory.
Here, again, the more information you’ve already drawn out about the greatest wants and
needs of the interviewer, and the more homework you’ve done to identify the culture of the
firm, the more on-target your answer will be.
Would you lie for the company ?
Try to avoid choosing between two values, giving a positive statement which covers all bases
Example: “I would never do anything to hurt the company..”
If aggressively pressed to choose between two competing values, always choose personal
integrity. It is the most prized of all values.
Looking back, what would you do differently in your life ?
Indicate that you are a happy, fulfilled, optimistic person and that, in general, you wouldn’t
change a thing.
Example: “It’s been a good life, rich in learning and experience, and the best it yet to come.
Every experience in life is a lesson it its own way. I wouldn’t change a thing.”
Could you have done better in your last job ?
Again never be negative.
Example: “I suppose with the benefit of hindsight you can always find things to do better, of
course, but off the top of my head, I can’t think of anything of major consequence.”
(If more explanation seems necessary)
Describer a situation that didn’t suffer because of you but from external conditions
beyond your control ?
For example, describe the disappointment you felt with a test campaign, new product launch,
merger, etc., which looked promising at first, but led to underwhelming results. 
have known at the start what we later found out (about the economy turning, the marketplace
changing, etc.), but since we couldn’t, we just had to go for it. And we did learn from it…”
Can you work under pressure ?
Absolutely…(then prove it with a vivid example or two of a goal or project accomplished under
severe pressure.)
What makes you angry ?
Give an answer that’s suited to both your personality and the management style of the firm.
Here, the homework you’ve done about the company and its style can help in your choice of
Examples: If you are a reserved person and/or the corporate culture is coolly professional:
“I’m an even-tempered and positive person by nature, and I believe this helps me a great deal in
keeping my department running smoothly, harmoniously and with a genuine esprit de corps. I
believe in communicating clearly what’s expected, getting people’s commitment to those goals,
and then following up continuously to check progress.”
“If anyone or anything is going off track, I want to know about it early. If, after that kind of open
communication and follow up, someone isn’t getting the job done, I’ll want to know why. If
there’s no good reason, then I’ll get impatient and angry…and take appropriate steps from
there. But if you hire good people, motivate them to strive for excellence and then follow up
constantly, it almost never gets to that state.”
If you are feisty by nature and/or the position calls for a tough straw boss.
“You know what makes me angry? People who (the fill in the blanks with the most objectionable
traits for this type of position)…people who don’t pull their own weight, who are negative,
people who lie…etc.”
Why aren’t you earning more money at this stage of your career ?
You like to make money, but other factors are even more important.
Example: “Making money is very important to me, and one reason I’m here is because I’m
looking to make more. Throughout my career, what’s been even more important to me is doing
work I really like to do at the kind of company I like and respect.
(Then be prepared to be specific about what your ideal position and company would be like,
matching them as closely as possible to the opportunity at hand.
Who has inspired you in your life and why?
Have a few heroes in mind, from your mental “Board of Directors” – Leaders in your industry,
from history or anyone else who has been your mentor.
Be prepared to give examples of how their words, actions or teachings have helped inspire your
achievements. As always, prepare an answer which highlights qualities that would be highly
valuable in the position you are seeking.
What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?
Be prepared with a good example, explaining why the decision was difficult…the process you
followed in reaching it…the courageous or effective way you carried it out…and the beneficial
Tell me about the most boring job you’ve ever had.
You have never allowed yourself to grow bored with a job and you can’t understand it when
others let themselves fall into that rut.
Example: “Perhaps I’ve been fortunate, but that I’ve never found myself bored with any job I
have ever held. I’ve always enjoyed hard work. As with actors who feel there are no small parts,
I also believe that in every company or department there are exciting challenges and intriguing
problems crying out for energetic and enthusiastic solutions. If you’re bored, it’s probably
because you’re not challenging yourself to tackle those problems right under your nose.”
Have you been absent from work more than a few days in any previous position?
If you have had no problem, emphasize your excellent and consistent attendance record
throughout your career.
Also describe how important you believe such consistent attendance is for a key executive…why
it’s up to you to set an example of dedication…and why there’s just no substitute for being there
with your people to keep the operation running smoothly, answer questions and handle
problems and crises as they arise.
If you do have a past attendance problem, you want to minimize it, making it clear that it was an
exceptional circumstance and that it’s cause has been corrected.
To do this, give the same answer as above but preface it with something like, “Other that being
out last year (or whenever) because of (your reason, which is now in the past), I have never had
a problem and have enjoyed an excellent attendance record throughout my career.
Furthermore, I believe, consistent attendance is important because…” (Pick up the rest of the
answer as outlined above.).
What changes would you make if you came on board?
You, of course, will want to take a good hard look at everything the company is doing before
making any recommendations.
Example: “Well, I wouldn’t be a very good doctor if I gave my diagnosis before the examination.
Should you hire me, as I hope you will, I’d want to take a good hard look at everything you’re
doing and understand why it’s being done that way. I’d like to have in-depth meetings with you
and the other key people to get a deeper grasp of what you feel you’re doing right and what
could be improved.
“From what you’ve told me so far, the areas of greatest concern to you are…” (name them. Then
do two things. First, ask if these are in fact his major concerns. If so then reaffirm how your
experience in meeting similar needs elsewhere might prove very helpful).
How many hours a week do you normally work?
If you are in fact a workaholic and you sense this company would like that: Say you are a
confirmed workaholic, that you often work nights and weekends. Your family accepts this
because it makes you fulfilled.
If you are not a workaholic: Say you have always worked hard and put in long hours. It goes with
the territory. It one sense, it’s hard to keep track of the hours because your work is a labor of
love, you enjoy nothing more than solving problems. So you’re almost always thinking about
your work, including times when you’re home, while shaving in the morning, while commuting,
What’s the most difficult part of being a (job title)?
First, redefine “difficult” to be “challenging” which is more positive. Then, identify an area
everyone in your profession considers challenging and in which you excel. Describe the process
you follow that enables you to get splendid results…and be specific about those results.
Example: “I think every sales manager finds it challenging to motivate the troops in a recession.
But that’s probably the strongest test of a top sales manager. I feel this is one area where I
“When I see the first sign that sales may slip or that sales force motivation is flagging because of
a downturn in the economy, here’s the plan I put into action immediately…” (followed by a
description of each step in the process…and most importantly, the exceptional results you’ve
The “Hypothetical Problem”
Instead, describe the rational, methodical process you would follow in analyzing this problem,
who you would consult with, generating possible solutions, choosing the best course of action,
and monitoring the results.
Remember, in all such, “What would you do?” questions, always describe your process or
working methods, and you’ll never go wrong.
What was the toughest challenge you’ve ever faced?
This is an easy question if you’re prepared. Have a recent example ready that demonstrates
A quality most important to the job at hand; or
A quality that is always in demand, such as leadership, initiative, managerial skill,
persuasiveness, courage, persistence, intelligence, etc.
Have you consider starting your own business?
Again it’s best to:
Gauge this company’s corporate culture before answering and…
Be honest (which doesn’t mean you have to vividly share your fantasy of the franchise or bedand-breakfast you someday plan to open).
In general, if the corporate culture is that of a large, formal, military-style structure, minimize
any indication that you’d love to have your own business. You might say, “Oh, I may have given
it a thought once or twice, but my whole career has been in larger organizations. That’s where I
have excelled and where I want to be.
If the corporate culture is closer to the free-wheeling, everybody’s-a-deal-maker variety, then
emphasize that in a firm like this, you can virtually get the best of all worlds, the excitement of
seeing your own ideas and plans take shape…combined with the resources and stability of a
well-established organization. Sounds like the perfect environment to you.
In any case, no matter what the corporate culture, be sure to indicate that any desires about
running your own show are part of your past, not your present or future.
The last thing you want to project is an image of either a dreamer who failed and is now settling
for the corporate cocoon…or the restless maverick who will fly out the door with key accounts,
contacts and trade secrets under his arms just as soon as his bankroll has gotten rebuilt.
Always remember: Match what you want with what the position offers. The more information
you’ve uncovered about the position, the more believable you can make your case.
What are your goals?
Many executives in a position to hire you are strong believers in goal-setting. (It’s one of the
reason they’ve achieved so much). They like to hire in kind.
If you’re vague about your career and personal goals, it could be a big turnoff to may people you
will encounter in your job search.
Be ready to discuss your goals for each major area of your life: career, personal development
and learning, family, physical (health), community service and (if your interviewer is clearly a
religious person) you could briefly and generally allude to your spiritual goals (showing you are a
well-rounded individual with your values in the right order).
Be prepared to describe each goal in terms of specific milestones you wish to accomplish along
the way, time periods you’re allotting for accomplishment, why the goal is important to you,
and the specific steps you’re taking to bring it about. But do this concisely, as you never want to
talk more than two minutes straight before letting your interviewer back into the conversation.
What do you for when you hire people?
Speak your own thoughts here, but for the best answer weave them around the three most
important qualifications for any position.
Can the person do the work (qualifications)?
Will the person do the work (motivation)?
Will the person fit in (“our kind of team player”)?
Sell me this stapler…(this pencil…this clock…or some other object on interviewer’s
Of course, you already know the most important secret of all great salesmanship – “find out
what people want, then show them how to get it.”
If your interviewer picks up his stapler and asks, “sell this to me,” you are going to demonstrate
this proven master principle. Here’s how:
“Well, a good salesman must know both his product and his prospect before he sells anything. If
I were selling this, I’d first get to know everything I could about it, all its features and benefits.”
“Then, if my goal were to sell it you, I would do some research on how you might use a fine
stapler like this. The best way to do that is by asking some questions. May I ask you a few
Then ask a few questions such as, “Just out of curiosity, if you didn’t already have a stapler like
this, why would you want one? And in addition to that? Any other reason? Anything else?”
“And would you want such a stapler to be reliable?...Hold a good supply of staples?” (Ask more
questions that point to the features this stapler has.)
Once you’ve asked these questions, make your presentation citing all the features and benefits
of this stapler and why it’s exactly what the interviewer just told you he’s looking for.
Then close with, “Just out of curiosity, what would you consider a reasonable price for a quality
stapler like this…a stapler you could have right now and would (then repeat all the problems the
stapler would solve for him)?Whatever he says, (unless it’s zero), say, “Okay, we’ve got a deal.”
NOTE: If your interviewer tests you by fighting every step of the way, denying that he even
wants such an item, don’t fight him. Take the product away from him by saying, “Mr. Prospect,
I’m delighted you’ve told me right upfront that there’s no way you’d ever want this stapler. As
you well know, the first rule of the most productive salespeople in any field is to meet the needs
of people who really need and want our products, and it just wastes everyone’s time if we try to
force it on those who don’t. And I certainly wouldn’t want to waste your time. But we sell many
items. Is there any product on this desk you would very much like to own…just one item?”When
he points something out, repeat the process above. If he knows anything about selling, he may
give you a standing ovation.
“The Salary Question” – How much money do you want ?
For maximum salary negotiating power, remember these five guidelines
Never bring up salary. Let the interviewer do it first. Good salespeople sell their products
thoroughly before talking price. So should you. Make the interviewer want you first, and your
bargaining position will be much stronger.
If your interviewer raises the salary question too early, before you’ve had a chance to create
desire for your qualifications, postpone the question, saying something like, “Money is
important to me, but is not my main concern. Opportunity and growth are far more important.
What I’d rather do, if you don’t mind, is explore if I’m right for the position, and then talk about
money. Would that be okay?”
The #1 rule of any negotiation is: the side with more information wins. After you’ve done a
thorough job of selling the interviewer and it’s time to talk salary, the secret is to get the
employer talking about what he’s willing to pay before you reveal what you’re willing to accept.
So, when asked about salary, respond by asking, “I’m sure the company has already established
a salary range for this position. Could you tell me what that is?” Or, “I want an income
commensurate with my ability and qualifications. I trust you’ll be fair with me. What does the
position pay?” Or, more simply, “What does this position pay?”
Know beforehand what you’d accept. To know what’s reasonable, research the job market and
this position for any relevant salary information. Remember that most executives look for a 20-
25%$ pay boost when they switch jobs. If you’re grossly underpaid, you may want more.
Never lie about what you currently make, but feel free to include the estimated cost of all your
fringes, which could well tack on 25-50% more to your present “cash-only” salary.
The Illegal Question
Illegal questions include any regarding your age…number and ages of your children or other
dependents…marital status…maiden name…religion…political affiliation…ancestry…national
origin…birthplace…naturalization of your parents, spouse or
children…diseases…disabilities…clubs…or spouse’s occupation…unless any of the above are
directly related to your performance of the job. You can’t even be asked about arrests, though
you can be asked about convictions.
ANSWER: Under the ever-present threat of lawsuits, most interviewers are well aware of these
taboos. Yet you may encounter, usually on a second or third interview, a senior executive who
doesn’t interview much and forgets he can’t ask such questions.
You can handle an illegal question in several ways. First, you can assert your legal right not to
answer. But this will frighten or embarrass your interviewer and destroy any rapport you had.
Second, you could swallow your concerns over privacy and answer the question straight
forwardly if you feel the answer could help you. For example, your interviewer, a devout Baptist,
recognizes you from church and mentions it. Here, you could gain by talking about your church.
Third, if you don’t want your privacy invaded, you can diplomatically answer the concern behind
the question without answering the question itself.
Example: If you are over 50 and are asked, “How old are you?” you can answer with a friendly,
smiling question of your own on whether there’s a concern that your age my affect your
performance. Follow this up by reassuring the interviewer that there’s nothing in this job you
can’t do and, in fact, your age and experience are the most important advantages you offer the
employer for the following reasons…
Another example: If asked, “Do you plan to have children?” you could answer, “I am
wholeheartedly dedicated to my career“, perhaps adding, “I have no plans regarding children.”
(You needn’t fear you’ve pledged eternal childlessness. You have every right to change your
plans later. Get the job first and then enjoy all your options.)
Most importantly, remember that illegal questions arise from fear that you won’t perform well.
The best answer of all is to get the job and perform brilliantly. All concerns and fears will then
varnish, replaced by respect and appreciation for your work.
The “Secret” Illegal Question
Much more frequent than the Illegal question is the secret illegal question. It’s secret because
it’s asked only in the interviewer’s mind. Since it’s not even expressed to you, you have no way
to respond to it, and it can there be most damaging.
Example: You’re physically challenged, or a single mother returning to your professional career,
or over 50, or a member of an ethnic minority, or fit any of a dozen other categories that do not
strictly conform to the majority in a given company.
Your interviewer wonders, “Is this person really able to handle the job?”…”Is he or she a ‘good
fit’ at a place like ours?”…”Will the chemistry ever be right with someone like this?” But the
interviewer never raises such questions because they’re illegal. So what can you do?
ANSWER: Remember that just because the interviewer doesn’t ask an illegal question doesn’t
mean he doesn’t have it. More than likely, he is going to come up with his own answer. So you
might as well help him out.
How? Well, you obviously can’t respond to an illegal question if he hasn’t even asked. This may
well offend him. And there’s always the chance he wasn’t even concerned about the issue until
you brought it up, and only then begins to wonder.
So you can’t address “secret” illegal questions head-on. But what you can do is make sure
there’s enough counterbalancing information to more than reassure him that there’s no
problem in the area he may be doubtful about.
For example, let’s say you’re a sales rep who had polio as a child and you need a cane to walk.
You know your condition has never impeded your performance, yet you’re concerned that your
interviewer may secretly be wondering about your stamina or ability to travel. Well, make sure
that you hit these abilities very hard, leaving no doubt about your capacity to handle them well.
So, too, if you’re in any different from what passes for “normal”. Make sure, without in any way
seeming defensive about yourself that you mention strengths, accomplishments, preferences
and affiliations that strongly counterbalance any unspoken concern your interviewer may have.
What was the toughest part of your last job?
State that there was nothing in your prior position that you found overly difficult, and let your
answer go at that. If pressed to expand your answer, you could describe the aspects of the
position you enjoyed more than others, making sure that you express maximum enjoyment for
those tasks most important to the open position, and you enjoyed least those tasks that are
unimportant to the position at hand.
How do you define success…and how do you measure up to your own definition?
Give a well-accepted definition of success that leads right into your own stellar collection of
Example: “The best definition I’ve come across is that success is the progressive realization of a
worthy goal.”
“As to how I would measure up to that definition, I would consider myself both successful and
fortunate…”(Then summarize your career goals and how your achievements have indeed
represented a progressive path toward realization of your goals.)
“The Opinion Question” – What do you think about …Abortion…The President…The Death
Penalty…(or any other controversial subject)?
In all of these instances, just remember the tale about student and the wise old rabbi. The scene
is a seminary, where an overly serious student is pressing the rabbi to answer the ultimate
questions of suffering, life and death. But no matter how hard he presses, the wise old rabbi will
only answer each difficult question with a question of his own.
In exasperation, the seminary student demands, “Why, rabbi, do you always answer a question
with another question?” To which the rabbi responds, “And why not?”
If you are ever uncomfortable with any question, asking a question in return is the greatest
escape hatch ever invented. It throws the onus back on the other person, sidetracks the
discussion from going into an area of risk to you, and gives you time to think of your answer or,
even better, your next question!
In response to any of the “opinion” questions cited above, merely responding, “Why do you
ask?” will usually be enough to dissipate any pressure to give your opinion. But if your
interviewer again presses you for an opinion, you can ask another question.
Or you could assert a generality that almost everyone would agree with. For example, if your
interviewer is complaining about politicians then suddenly turns to you and asks if you’re a
Republican or Democrat, you could respond by saying, “Actually, I’m finding it hard to find any
politicians I like these days.”
(Of course, your best question of all may be whether you want to work for someone
If you won $10 million lottery, would you still work?
This type of question is aimed at getting at your bedrock attitude about work and how you feel
about what you do. Your best answer will focus on your positive feelings.
Example: “After I floated down from cloud nine, I think I would still hold my basic belief that
achievement and purposeful work are essential to a happy, productive life. After all, if money
alone bought happiness, then all rich people would be all happy, and that’s not true.
“I love the work I do, and I think I’d always want to be involved in my career in some fashion.
Winning the lottery would make it more fun because it would mean having more flexibility,
more options...who knows?”
“Of course, since I can’t count on winning, I’d just as soon create my own destiny by sticking
with what’s worked for me, meaning good old reliable hard work and a desire to achieve. I think
those qualities have built many more fortunes that all the lotteries put together.”
Looking back on your last position, have you done your best work?
To cover both possible paths this question can take, your answer should state that you always
try to do your best, and the best of your career is right now. Like an athlete at the top of his game, you are just hitting your career stride thanks to several factors. Then, recap those factors,
highlighting your strongest qualifications.
Why should I hire you from the outside when I could promote someone from within?
Help him see the qualifications that only you can offer.
Example: “In general, I think it’s a good policy to hire from within – to look outside probably
means you’re not completely comfortable choosing someone from inside.
“Naturally, you want this department to be as strong as it possibly can be, so you want the
strongest candidate. I feel that I can fill that bill because…(then recap your strongest
qualifications that match up with his greatest needs).”
Tell me something negative you’ve heard about our company…
Just remember the rule – never be negative – and you’ll handle this one just fine.
On a scale of one to ten, rate me as an interviewer.
Once again, never be negative. The interviewer will only resent criticism coming from you. This
is the time to show your positivism.
However, don’t give a numerical rating. Simply praise whatever interview style he’s
been using.
If he’s been tough, say “You have been thorough and tough-minded, the very qualities needed
to conduct a good interview.”
If he’s been methodical, say, “You have been very methodical and analytical, and I’m sure that
approach results in excellent hires for your firm.”
In other words, pay him a sincere compliment that he can believe because it’s anchored in the
behavior you’ve just seen.
Review these typical interview questions and think about how you would answer them. Read
the questions listed; you will also find some strategy suggestions with it.
1. Tell me about yourself:
The most often asked question in interviews. You need to have a short statement prepared
in your mind. Be careful that it does not sound rehearsed. Limit it to work-related items
unless instructed otherwise. Talk about things you have done and jobs you have held that
relate to the position you are interviewing for. Start with the item farthest back and work up
to the present.
2. Why did you leave your last job?
Stay positive regardless of the circumstances. Never refer to a major problem with
management and never speak ill of supervisors, co-workers or the organization. If you do,
you will be the one looking bad. Keep smiling and talk about leaving for a positive reason
such as an opportunity, a chance to do something special or other forward-looking reasons.
3. What experience do you have in this field?
Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying for. If you do not have
specific experience, get as close as you can.
4. Do you consider yourself successful?
You should always answer yes and briefly explain why. A good explanation is that you have
set goals, and you have met some and are on track to achieve the others.
5. What do co-workers say about you?
Be prepared with a quote or two from co-workers. Either a specific statement or a
paraphrase will work. Jill Clark, a co-worker at Smith Company, always said I was the
hardest workers she had ever known. It is as powerful as Jill having said it at the interview
6. What do you know about this organization?
This question is one reason to do some research on the organization before the interview.
Find out where they have been and where they are going. What are the current issues and
who are the major players?
7. What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year?
Try to include improvement activities that relate to the job. A wide variety  of activities can
be mentioned as positive self-improvement. Have some good  ones handy to mention.
8. Are you applying for other jobs?
Be honest but do not spend a lot of time in this area. Keep the focus on this job and what
you can do for this organization. Anything else is a distraction.
9. Why do you want to work for this organization? 
This may take some thought and certainly, should be based on the research you have done
on the organization. Sincerity is extremely important here and will easily be sensed. Relate
it to your long-term career goals.
10. Do you know anyone who works for us?
Be aware of the policy on relatives working for the organization. This can affect your answer
even though they asked about friends not relatives. Be careful to mention a friend only if
they are well thought of.
11. What kind of salary do you need?
A loaded question. A nasty little game that you will probably lose if you answer first. So, do
not answer it. Instead, say something like, That's a tough question. Can you tell me the
range for this position? In most cases, the interviewer, taken off guard, will tell you. If not,
say that it can depend on the details of the job. Then give a wide range.
12. Are you a team player?
You are, of course, a team player. Be sure to have examples ready. Specifics that show you
often perform for the good of the team rather than for yourself are good evidence of your
team attitude. Do not brag, just say it in a matter-of-fact tone. This is a key point.
13. How long would you expect to work for us if hired?
Specifics here are not good. Something like this should work: I'd like it to be a long time. Or
As long as we both feel I'm doing a good job.
14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did you feel about that?
This is serious. Do not make light of it or in any way seem like you like to fire people. At the
same time, you will do it when it is the right thing to  do. When it comes to the organization
versus the individual who has created a harmful situation, you will protect the organization.
Remember firing is not the same as layoff or reduction in force.
15. What is your philosophy towards work?
The interviewer is not looking for a long or flowery dissertation here. Do you have strong
feelings that the job gets done? Yes. That's the type of answer that works best here. Short
and positive, showing a benefit to the organization.
16. If you had enough money to retire right now, would you?
Answer yes if you would. But since you need to work, this is the type of work you prefer. Do
not say yes if you do not mean it.
17. Have you ever been asked to leave a position?
If you have not, say no. If you have, be honest, brief and avoid saying negative things
about the people or organization involved.
18. Explain how you would be an asset to this organization
You should be anxious for this question. It gives you a chance to highlight your best points
as they relate to the position being discus.