HP-UX

HP-UX


                                  HP-UX Command List


HP-UX Cheat Sheet
This is a document that can be used for revision purposes for HP-UX.
Kernel
Kernel parms and Hardware. /usr/sbin/sysdef or ioscan –fn
Major numbers (devices) lsdev
Unix device messages dmesg
Configuration files /etc/rc.config.d
Unix Kernel /stand/vmunix
All crash files. /var/adm/crash

display loaded modules kmadmin
kmadmin -s
load modules kmadmin -L
unload modules kmadmin -U
set kernel parameters kctune (11i)
rebuild kernel
display kernel parameters kctune (11i)
sysdef
kmtune
kmsystem
usr/sam/lbin/getkinfo -f /stand/vmunix -o /tmp/kernel.data
re/build kernel cd /stand/build
/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prep -s system
edit system file
/usr/sbin/mk_kernel -s ./system
mv /stand/system /stand/system.old
mv /stand/vmunix /stand/vmunix.old
mv /stand/build/system /stand
mv /stand/build/vmunix_test /stand/vmunix
shutdown -r 0

System Information
amount of memory dmesg |grep -I physical
/usr/sam/lbin/getmem
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
cpu (type, number, etc)
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
sam > performance monitors > system properties (detailed)
model
uname -m
disk drives
pvdisplay -v
disk info serial numbers
diskinfo -v /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0 (detailed but no serial number)
/opt/ignite/bin/print_manifest
ioscan -fn -C disk
Kernel 32 or 64
getconf KERNEL_BITS (11.0)
(HPUX < 11.00 all 32 bit)

Note: determine if system supports 32/64 bits
getconf HW_CPU_SUPP_BITS
Display firmware
< 10.20:
1. At the system prompt, enter "sysdiag"
2. At the DUI prompt, enter "sysmap"
3. At the ENTER MAP prompt, enter "cpumap"
4. Note the PDC Firmware value
5. At the ENTER MAP prompt, enter "exit"
6. At the DUI prompt, enter "exit"

10.20 >: use mstm (tools manger)

trace system calls
 

Daemons
NFS daemons server: rpc.mountd, nfsd
client:rpc.statd, lockd

/etc/exports
Time daemons netdaemons

/etc/rc.config.d/netdaemons
/etc/ntp.conf

Software
adding packages/patch swinstall -s /var/spool/sw
removing packages/patch swremove
Listing installed packages/patches swlist -l product PH* (HPUX 10.x)
swlist -l patch (HPUX 11)
verify package/patches swlist -l -a state
swverify
Adding packages to depot swlist -d @ /dev/rmt/0m
Removing packages to depot swremove -d * @ /var/spool/sw
listing packages from depot swlist -d @ /dev/rmt/0
swlist -d @ /var/spool/sw
copy software from one depot to another swcopy -s /dev/rmt/0 @ /var/spool/sw
register software swreg
List all files in package swlist -l <file>
configure software swconfig

Log Files
messages n/a
syslog /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log
mail /var/adm/syslog/mail.log
cron /var/adm/cron/log
boot /var/adm/syslog/syslog.log
sam log /var/sam/log/samlog

Accounts
displaying users cat /etc/passwd
logins
adding a user useradd
sam
removing a user userdel
sam
modifying a user usermod
sam
password files /etc/passwd
/tcb/files/auth/r/root (trusted system)

Network
displaying NIC speeds ndd -get
setting NIC speeds ndd -set
lanadmin
display routing table netstat -rn
displaying network interfaces lanscan (all)
ifconfig lan0 (individual)
Lan device config (interface name, state, mjr number, Hardware path, mac address) lanscan
Lan Diag tool (like a netstat –I and –s and more) Landiag or lanadmin
setup dns /etc/resolv.conf
name service switch file /etc/nsswitch.conf

NFS Configuration
display nfs shares showmount -e localhost
cat /etc/xtab
create nfs share /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf (edit)
/etc/exports (edit file & add share)
exportfs -a
uncreate nfs share /etc/rc.config.d/nfsconf (edit)
exportfs -au (unshare all)
exportfs -u /home/vallep
/etc/exports (edit file & remove file)
nfs start /sbin/init.d/nfs.core start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.server start
/sbin/init.d/nfs.client start
nfs stop /sbin/init.d/nfs.client stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.server stop
/sbin/init.d/nfs.core stop
nfs status ps -ef|grep
nfs reload exportfs -a
nfs performance nfsstat

Sam
Sam Log file location /usr/local/log/samlog

Console
Root only on console /etc/securetty

Boot (ISL)
Boot a particular kernel (standalone) Hpux –is /stand/vmunix
Boot in stanalone Hpux –is boot
Boot multi-user Hpux –lm boot

Build a new kernel
  cd /stand/build
/usr/lbin/sysadm/system_prem -s system
edit system file
/usr/sbin/mk_kernel -s ./system
mv /stand/system /stand/system.old
mv /stand/vmunix /stand/vmunix.old
mv /stand/build/system /stand
mv /stand/build/vmunix_test /stand/vmunix
reboot

Disk
setting the boot device setboot -p
setboot -a
format floppy drive n/a
mount/unmount floppy n/a
mount/unmount CDROM mount -rF cdfs /dev/mnt
create boot disk or
recovery tape
recovery tape (preview):
make_tape_recovery -v -I -x inc_entire=vg00
boot cdrom/diskette
(single user)
>boot pri
Interact with IPL? Y
ISL>hpux -is
boot into maintenace
mode
>boot pri
Interact with IPL? Y
ISL>hpux -lm
Display the LIF area (Logical Interchange Format) lifls -l /dev/dsk/c0t6d0
Display characteristics of a tape drive lssf /dev/rmt/c4t1d0DESTn

Logical Volume Manager


mountable drives /etc/fstab
lvm drives /etc/lvmtab
exported drives /etc/exports
mounted exported drives /etc/xtab

create a filesystem newfs –F <filesystem type>
create a exported filesystem exportfs-a
block devices mkfs –v –C <class> -m <minor #> <device>
raw devices mkfs –v –r –C <class> -m <minor#> <device>

info on disk drives diskinfo
df –k bdf
change interleave factor mediainit
A number of disk that have to be running in order for a VG to mount quorum

Swap
Display swap information swapinfo (display in Kb)
swapinfo -m (display in Mb)
swapinfo -tm (total and Mb)
Adding swap Create logical volume or filesystem swapon <device>|<logical device>
swapon -p 3 <device>|<logical device>
update /etc/fstab
Note: -p = priority swap number
Removing swap edit /etc/fstab
reboot

Misc
startup  
shutdown shutdown -h -g0 -y (halt)
shutdown -r -g0 -y (reboot)
init status
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
 
determine the runlevel who -r
obtain default run level  
start xwindows  
ntp setup  
force a fsck  
page size (memory) 4Kb
initialize system set_parms initial
Timezone /etc/TIMEZONE
update /dev directory Class:
insf -C tape
Recreate deleted link:
insf -H 0.1.0 -e
remove device rmsf
list device drivers lsdev
console login (allow/deny) /etc/securetty


 Show OS Name & Version
$ uname
HP-UX
$ uname -s
HP-UX
Display information about computer system; set node name (system name)
$ uname -a
HP-UX itstebw3 B.11.31 U ia64 2378689608 unlimited-user license
$ uname -i
2378689608
Display the machine identification number (or the node name, if the machine identification number cannot be determined).  This option cannot display the unique machine identification number.  For getting the unique machine identification number refer to the getconf command or confstr call.  See getconf(1)) and confstr(3C).
$ uname -l
Unlimited user license
Display the license level of the operating system.128-, 256-, and unlimited-user licenses are shown as unlimited-user license.
$ uname -s
HP-UX
Display the name of the operating system.  On standard HP-UX systems, this option always displays HP-UX.
$ uname -r
B.11.31
Display the current release level of the operating system.
 Hewlett-Packard Company - 1 - HP-UX 11i Version 3 Feb 2007
$ uname -v
U
Display the current version level of the operating system.
$ uname -n
itstebw3
Display the node name (system name) by which the  system is usually known in a UUCP network. 
$ uname -m
ia64
Display the machine hardware and model names.  On Itanium(R)-based systems, this option always displays ia64. 
Compress file
compress -c file.txt > file.Z Create a compressed file.
uuencode (infile) (extract-file-name) > (output file)
Converts a binary file to an ASCII file for transfer by modem or email
uudecode (encoded file)
Extracts a binary file from encoded file and calls it the extract-file-name
examples :-
uuencode maymap maymap > maymap.enc
uudecode maymap.enc
od -c /tmp Displays contents of the /tmp directory file
ls -i Lists files with their inode numbers
echo * Lists files, can be used if ls is corrupt/missing
chtz (timezone eg GMT0BST) Changes the timezone in /etc/environment file
chlang (language eg En_GB) Changes the language in /etc/environment file
ar -v -t (archive file) List contents of an archive
ar -v -x (archive file) Extracts the archive
ar -v -t /usr/lib/libC-r.a Lists contents of the libC_r.a library
find /source -print | cpio -pdm /target
Copying directories using cpio, creates /target/source directory.
dump -nTv (binary executable) Displays the contents of an executable file
dump -c Displays string information
dump -o Displays object file headers
dump -l Displays line numbers
dump -s Displays the text section
snap -ao /dev/rmt0 Create a snapshot onto tape
snap -ad (directory) Create a snapshot into a named directory other
than the default (/tmp/ibmsupt)
/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d Disables desktop logins
/usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -e Enables desktop logins
/var/dt/Xpid PID of the dtlogin process
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LICENSES / SOFTWARE INSTALLATION
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
lslicense Displays number of current user licenses
chlicense -u (number) Changes the number of user licenses
( ftp,rexec and rsh (without -i flag) do not need an AIX user license to be
able to access the system. )
oslevel Returns operating system level
4 . 3 . 3 . 0 <--------- Preventive Maintenance Level
| | |
| | +----------------Modification
| +--------------------Release
+------------------------Version
oslevel -l 4.3.3.0 Displays all filesets that are "downlevel"
whence (program) Returns full path of program
whereis (program) Returms full path of program
what (program) Displays identifying info from the executable
like version number, when compiled.
lslpp -L all list all installed software
lslpp -L (program set name) Check if software installed
lslpp -f Lists filesets vs packages
lslpp -ha Lists installation history of filesets
lslpp -w /usr/bin/swapon Lists the fileset that the file belongs to
lppchk -c Checks file checksums against SWVPD
lppchk -l Checks symbolic links against SWVPD
instfix -ik (fix number eg IX66617) Checks id fix is installed
instfix -ik 4330-02_AIX_ML
instfix -i | grep ML Displays all ML's installed
instfix -k IX38794 -d /dev/cd0 Installs a fix from cdrom
/usr/sbin/install_assist Smitty Installation Assistant
/usr/sys/inst.images/sys.bundles Software bundle files
alt_disk_install -c hdisk1 Clones a running rootvg onto hdisk1
alt_disk_install -w Wakes up alt vg
alt_disk_install -s Sends alt vg to sleep !
alt_disk_install -x Removes alt vg from disk
/usr/lpp/bosinst/blvset -d /dev/hdisk0 -p 4.2
Resets the pad string in the BLV to the correct AIX version. Needed if the
migration option is missing when installing.
installp -ad (device) (fileset) (level) Install apply and commit fileset
installp -pad (device) (fileset) (level) Preview install
installp -u (fileset) Remove fileset
installp -ld (device) List all software on device
example:-
installp -pad /dev/rmt0 X11.base 4.3.3.0
installp -C Cleans up after a premature cancel or interrupted installation.
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TERMINALS / DISPLAYS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/usr/share/lib/terminfo Directory with all support terminal info files.
tty Displays what the tty/pty number of the terminal is.
termdef reports the termtype setup in smit for the tty port
that termdef is run on.
chdev -l (device eg tty1) -a term=vt100 Sets tty to a vt100 terminal type
penable tty0 adds getty line into /etc/inittab for tty0 and starts getty
pdisable tty0 disables the getty line and disables getty
penable / pdisable -a option is for all
stty erase ^? Set backspace key for vt100 terminals
stty erase ^H Set backspace key for wyse50 terminals
lscons Displays the console device
chcons -a login=enable (device eg /dev/tty1) Changes the console device
lsdisp Display adapter device information
chdisp Change default display used by LFT subsystem
Create ttys on ports 0 to 7 on adapter sa2 :-
for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
do
mkdev -c tty1 -t tty -s rs232 -p sa2 -w$i -a login=enable -a term=vt100
done
portmir -t /dev/tty0 Mirror current terminal onto /dev/tty0
portmir -o Turns off port mirroring
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NETWORK
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
host (ip or hostname) Resolves a hostname / ip address
hostname Displays hostname
hostname (hostname) Sets the hostname until next reboot
lsdev -Cc if Lists all available/defined network interfaces
chdev -l (device name) -a hostname=(hostname) Changes hostname permanently
chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=thomas
ifconfig (device name) Displays network card settings
ifconfig (device name) up Turns on network card
chdev -l (device name) -a state=up Turns on network card
ifconfig (device name) down Turns off network card
ifconfig (device name) detach Removes the network card from the
network interface list
ifconfig en0 inet 194.35.52.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up
ifconfig lo0 alias 195.60.60.1 Create alias ip address for loopback
route (add/delete) (-net/-host) (destination) (gateway)
Adds or deletes routes to other networks or hosts, does not update
the ODM database and will be lost at reboot.
route add -net 194.60.89.0 194.60.90.4
chdev -l inet0 -a "net,-hopcount,1,-netmask,255.255.255.0,207.156.168.0,10.0.15.254"
(destination) ( gateway )
Adds route and adds entry into ODM, route survives a reboot,
route -rn Display route table
odmget -q "attribute=route" CuAt Displays routes in the ODM.
lsattr -EHl inet0 Displays routes set in ODM and hostname
odmget -q "name=inet0" CuAt Displays routes set in ODM and hostname
refresh -s inetd Refresh inetd after changes to inetd.conf
kill -1 (inetd PID) Refresh inetd after changes to inted.conf
netstat -i Displays interface statistics
entstat -d (ethernet adapter eg en0) Displays ethernet statistics
arp -a Displays ip to mac address table from arp cache
no -a Displays network options use -o to set individual options or
-d to set individual options to default.
no -o option=value (this value is reset at reboot)
no -o "ipforwarding=1"
traceroute (name or ipaddress) Displays all the hops from source to
destination supplied.
ping -R (hostname or ipaddress) Same as traceroute except repeats.
spray (hostname or ipaddress) Send a stream of packets to a host
stopsrc -g tcpip Stops all running TCP/IP daemons
/etc/tcp.clean Stops all running TCP/IP daemons and removes all
lock files
/etc/rc.tcpip Start all TCP/IP daemons.
Do not use startsrc -g tcpip as this will start all
TCP/IP daemons including routed & gated
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N.F.S.

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exportfs Lists all exported filesystems
exportfs -a Exports all fs's in /etc/exports file
exportfs -u (filesystem) Un-exports a filesystem
mknfs Configures and starts NFS services
rmnfs Stops and un-configures NFS services
mknfsexp -d /directory Creates an NFS export directory
mknfsmnt Creates an NFS mount directory
mount hostname:/filesystem /mount-point Mount an NFS filesystem
nfso -a Display NFS Options
nfso -o option=value Set an NFS Option
nfso -o nfs_use_reserved_port=1
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BACKUPS
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MKSYSB
------
mkszfile -f Creates /image.data file (4.x onwards)
mkszfile -X Creates /fs.size file (3.x)
mksysb -i (device of file) Creates a mksysb image
mksysb does not save any raw data and will not backup a filesystem that
is not mounted.
SAVEVG
------
savevg -if (device or file) (vg) Creates a savevg image
restvg -q -f (device or file) Restore from a savevg image
Ensure that the restvg command is run from /
mkvgdata (vg) Creates new vgname.data file
CPIO ARCHIVE
------------
find (filesystem) -print | cpio -ocv > (filename or device)
eg find ./usr/ -print | cpio -ocv > /dev/rmt0
CPIO RESTORE
------------
cpio -ict < (filename or device) | more Lists archive
cpio -icdv < (filename or device)
cpio -icdv < (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")
eg cpio -icdv < /dev/rmt0 "tcpip/*" Restore directory and contents
cpio -icdv < /dev/rmt0 "*resolve.conf" Restore a named file
TAR ARCHIVE
-----------
tar -cvf (filename or device) ("files or directories to archive")
eg tar -cvf /dev/rmt0 "/usr/*"
TAR RESTORE
-----------
tar -tvf (filename or device) Lists archive
tar -xvf (filename or device) Restore all
tar -xvf (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")
use -p option for restoring with orginal permissions
eg tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 "tcpip" Restore directory and contents
tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 "tcpip/resolve.conf" Restore a named file
AIX ARCHIVE
-----------
find (filesystem) -print | backup -iqvf (filename or device)
Backup by filename.
eg find /usr/ -print | backup -iqvf /dev/rmt0
backup -(backup level 0 to 9) -f (filename or device) ("filesystem")
Backup by inode.
eg backup -0 -f /dev/rmt0 "/usr" -u option updates /etc/dumpdates file
AIX RESTORE
-----------
restore -qTvf (filename or device) Lists archive
restore -qvxf (filename or device) Restores all
restore -qvxf (filename or device) ("files or directories to restore")
(use -d for restore directories)
restore -qvxf /dev/rmt0.1 "./etc/passwd" Restore /etc/passwd file
restore -s4 -qTvf /dev/rmt0.1 Lists contents of a mksysb tape
BACKUPS ACROSS A NETWORK
------------------------
To run the backup on a local machine (cpio) and backup on the remote
machine's (remhost) tape drive (/dev/rmt0)
find /data -print | cpio -ocv | dd obs=32k | rsh remhost
"dd ibs=32k obs=64k of=/dev/rmt0"
To restore/read the backup (cpio) on the remote machine
dd ibs=64k if=/dev/rmt0 | cpio -icvt
To restore/read the backup (cpio) on the local machine from the remote
machine's (remhost) tape drive (/dev/rmt0)
rsh remhost "dd ibs=64k obs=32k if=/dev/rmt0" | dd ibs=32k
| cpio -icvt
To run the backup (cpio) on a remote machine (remhost) and backup to
the local machines tape drive (/dev/rmt0)
rsh remhost "find /data -print | cpio -ocv | dd ibs=32k"
| dd ibs=32k obs=64k of=/dev/rmt0
tar cBf - . | rsh remhost "dd ibs=512 obs=512 of=/dev/rmt0"
Same as above but using tar instead of cpio.
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Copying diskettes and tape
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COPYING DISKETTES
-----------------
dd if=/dev/fd0 of=(filename) bs=36b
dd if=(filename) of=/dev/fd0 bs=36b conv=sync or flcopy
COPYING TAPES
-------------
dd if=/dev/rmt0 of=(filename)
dd if=(filename) of=/dev/rmt0 or tcopy
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VI Commands
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:g/xxx/s//yyy/ global change where xxx is to be changed by yyy
sed 's(ctrl v ctrl m)g//g' old.filename > new.filename
Strips out ^M characters from ascii files that have been transferred as binary.
To enter crontrol characters type ctrl v then ctrl ? where ? is whatever
ctrl character you need.
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DEVICES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
lscfg lists all installed devices
lscfg -v lists all installed devices in detail
lscfg -vl (device name) lists device details
bootinfo -b reports last device the system booted from
bootinfo -k reports keyswitch position
1=secure, 2=service, 3=normal
bootinfo -r reports amount of memory (/ by 1024)
bootinfo -s (disk device) reports size of disk drive
bootinfo -T reports type of machine
ie rspc,rs6ksmp,rspc or chrp
lsattr -El sys0 -a realmem reports amount of useable memory
mknod (device) c (major no) (minor no) Creates a /dev/ device file.
mknod /dev/null1 c 2 3
lsdev -C lists all customised devices ie installed
lsdev -P lists all pre-defined devices ie supported
lsdev -(C or P) -c (class) -t (type) -s (subtype)
chdev -l (device) -a (attribute)=(new value) Change a device attribute
chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=80
lsattr -EH -l (device) -D Lists the defaults in the pre-defined db
lsattr -EH -l sys0 -a modelname
rmdev -l (device) Change device state from available to defined
rmdev -l (device) -d Delete the device
rmdev -l (device) -SR S stops device, R unconfigures child devices
lsresource -l (device) Displays bus resource attributes of a device.
cfgmgr Configures devices
cfgmgr -i /dev/cd0 Configure devices and install drivers from /dev/cd0
if required
cfgmgr -S Run in serial, used with a larger number of disks
cfgmgr -l scsi0 Configure devices on adapter scsi0 only
diag Run hardware diagnostic menu
smitty diag Run hardware diagnostic menu
( 7020-40P and 7248-43P machines cannot run diagnostics, use diagnostics
in the SMS menus instead )
diag -d (device) Run diagnostics against a device.
lsslot Displays all hot swap slots
lsslot -c pci Lists all pci hot swap slots
lsslot -c pci -a Lists all available pci hot swap slots
drslot Reconfgiures PCI hot-plug slots
drslot -i -c pci -s U0.1-P1-I3 Display a slot, flashes the LED next to
the slot so that it can be identified.
Power Management (PCI machines)
-------------------------------
pmctrl -a Displays the Power Management state
rmdev -l pmc0 Unconfigure Power Management
mkdev -l pmc0 Configure Power Management
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TAPE DRIVES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
rmt0.x where x = A + B + C
A = density 0 = high 4 = low
B = retension 0 = no 2 = yes
C = rewind 0 = yes 1 = no
tctl -f (tape device) fsf (No) Skips forward (No) tape markers
tctl -f (tape device) bsf (No) Skips back (No) tape markers
tctl -f (tape device) rewind Rewind the tape
tctl -f (tape device) offline Eject the tape
tctl -f (tape device) status Show status of tape drive
chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 changes block size to 512 bytes
(4mm = 1024, 8mm = variable but
1024 recommended)
dd if=/dev/rmt0 bs=128k count=1 | wc -c
Displays the block size of an unknow tape. Set block size to 0 first.
bootinfo -e answer of 1 = machine can boot from a tape drive
answer of 0 = machine CANNOT boot from tape drive
diag -c -d (tape device) Hardware reset a tape drive.
diag -c -d rmt0
tapechk (No of files) Checks Number of files on tape.
< /dev/rmt0 Rewinds the tape !!!
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PRINTERS / PRINT QUEUES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
splp (device) Displays/changes printer driver settings
splp /dev/lp0
export $LPDEST="pqname" Set default printer queue for login session
lsvirprt Lists/changes virtual printer attributes.
lsallq Displays all queues
rmvirprt -q queuename -d queuedevice Removes a virtual printer
qpri -#(job No) -a(new priority) Change a queue job priority.
qhld -#(job No) Put a hold on hold
qhld -r #(job No) Release a held job
qchk -A Status of jobs in queues
lpstat
lpstat -p(queue) Status of jobs in a named queue
qcan -x (job No) Cancel a job from a queue
cancel (job No)
enq -U -P(queue) Enable a queue
enable (queue)
enq -D -P(queue) Disable a queue
disable (queue)
qmov -m(new queue) -#(job No) Move a job to another queue
startsrc -s qdaemon Start qdaemon sub-system
lssrc -s qdaemon List status of qdaemon sub-system
stop -s qdaemon Stop qdaemon sub-system
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FILE SYSTEMS
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Physical Volumes (PV's)
-----------------------
lspv Lists all physical volumes (hard disks)
lspv (pv) Lists the physical volume details
lspv -l (pv) Lists the logical volumes on the physical volume
lspv -p (pv) Lists the physical partition usage for that PV
lspv -M (pv) Lists the PP allocation table for that PV.
If the PV state is "missing" but the disk is okay, use "varyonvg vg" to change
the state of the PV to "active".
chdev -l (pv) -a pv=yes Makes a new hdisk a pysical volume.
chpv -v r (pv) Removes a disk from the system.
chpv -v a (pv) Adds the removed disk back into the system.
chpv -a y (pv) Changes pv allocatable state to YES
chpv -a n (pv) Changes pv allocatable state to NO
migratepv (old pv) (new pv) Moves all LV's from one PV to another PV, both
PV's must be in the same volume group.
Migratepv cannot migrate striped logical volumes, use cplv and rmlv.
replacepv (old pv) (new pv) (4.3.3 onwards)
Volume Groups (VG's)
--------------------
lsvg Lists all volume groups
lsvg (vg) Lists the volume group details
lsvg -l (vg) Lists all logical volumes in the volume group
lsvg -p (vg) Lists all physical volumes in the volume group
lsvg -o Lists all varied on volume groups
varyonvg (vg) Vary On a volume group
varyonvg -f (vg) Forces the varyon process
varyonvg -s (vg) Vary on a VG in maintenance mode. LV commands can be
used on VG, but LV,s cannot be opened for I/O.
varyoffvg (vg) Vary Off a volume group
synclvodm (vg) Tries to resync VGDA, LV control blocks and ODM.
synclvodm -v (vg) Rebuilds the LVCB.
(the vg needs to be varied on before running synclvodm)
mkvg -y(vg) -s(PP size) (pv) Create a volume group
mkvg -y datavg -s 4 hdisk1
reducevg (vg) (pv) Removes a volume group
reducevg -d (vg) (pv) Removes a volume group and delete all LV's on the PV
reducevg (vg) (PVID) Removes the PVID disk reference from the VGDA when a
disk has vanished without the reducevg (vg) (pv)
command being run first.
reducevg -df (vg) (pv) Deletes all LV's from the VG and removes the VG
from the disk. If the last disk in the VG then
the VG is deleted.
extendvg (vg) (new pv) Adds another PV into a VG.
exportvg (vg) Exports the volume group, removes the VG entries and
removes all FS entries from /etc/filesystems but
leaves the mount points.
Note : Cannot export a VG if it has active paging space, turn off paging,
reboot before exporting VG. Exporting removes entries from filesystems
file but does not remove the mount points.
chvg -a y (vg) Auto Vary On a volume group at system start.
chvg -u (vg) Unlocks a locked volume group.
lqueryvg -Atp (pv) Details volume group info for the hard disk.
importvg -y (vg name) (pv) Import a volume group from a disk.
importvg (pv) Same as above but VG will be called vg00 etc.
4.3 onwards, importvg will automatically varyon the VG.
chvg -Q (y/n) (vg name) Turns on/off Quorum checking on a VG.
reorgvg (vg) (lv) Reorganised a fragmented LV, must state an LV at the
command line else the first LV in the VG is picked.
Does not reorg the PP's of striped LV's.
Logical Volumes (LV's)
----------------------
lslv (lv) Lists the logical volume details
lslv -l (lv) Lists the physical volume which the LV is on
lsattr -EHl (lv) Displays more logical volume details
mklv (vg) (No of PP's) (pv Name optional) Create a logical volume
mklv -y (lv) (PP's) (pv name optional) Creates a named logical volume
( use -t jfs2 when creating an LV for a JFS2 filesystem )
chlv -n (new lv) (old lv) Rename a logical volume
chlv -x (number) (lv) Change max no of PP's
chlv -s n (lv) Turns of strickness on the LV
extendlv (lv) (extra No of PP's) Increase the size of an LV
rmlv (lv) Remove a logical volume
cplv -v (vg to copy to) -y (new lv) (lv) Copy an LV to a new LV
If copying a filesystem LV, umount the filesystem before copying, otherwise you
will have to fsck the the new LV before the filesystem can be mounted.
If copying a striped LV to an LV that is already created, and the stripe
size is different ( or not even striped ), then these new parameters are
maintained when the data is copied to the new LV.
cplv -e (new lv) (old lv) Copy to an existing LV
( new lv must have type as copy use chlv -t copy (new lv) to change )
mklv/extendlv -a = PP alocation policy
-am = middle -ac = center -ae = edge
-aie = inner edge -aim = inner middle
migratepv -l (lv) (old pv) (new pv)
Move a logical volume between physical volumes. Both physical volumes
must be in the same volume group !
mklv -y (lv) -t jfslog (vg) (No of PP's) (pv Name optional)
Creates a JFSlog logical volume.
logform (/dev/lv) Initialises an LV for use as an JFSlog
getlvcb -AT (lv) Displays Logical Volume Control Block information
File Systems (FS's)
-------------------

lsfs Lists all filesystems
lsfs -q (fs) Lists the file system details
lsjfs Displays data about all filesystems in CSV style format
mount Lists all the mounted filesystems
mount (fs or lv) Mounts a named filesystem
mount -a Mounts all filesystems
mount all
mount -r -v cdrfs /dev/cd0 /cdrom mounts cd0 drive over /cdrom
crfs -v jfs -d(lv) -m(mount point) -A yes
Will create a file system on the whole of the logical volume, adds entry into
/etc/filesystems and will create mount point directory if it does not exist.
( use -v jfs2 for JFS2 filesystems )
crfs -v jfs -g(vg) -m(mount point) -a size=(size of fs) -A yes
Will create a logical volume on the volume group and create the file system on
the logical volume. All at the size stated. Will add entry into
/etc/filesystems and will create the mount point directory if it does not exist.
Use attribute "-a log=/dev/log01" to specify a jfslog devices
Use attrubute "-a bf=true" for a large file enabled filesystem
chfs -A yes (fs) Change file system to Auto mount in
/etc/filesystems
chfs -a size=(new fs size)(fs) Change file system size
chfs -m (new-mount-point) (fs) Change the file system mount point.
rmfs (fs) Removes the file system and will also remove the
LV if there are no onther file systems on it.
defrag -q (fs) Reports the fragment status of the file system.
defragfs -r (fs) Runs in report only defrag mode (no action).
defragfs (fs) Defragments a file system.
fsck (fs) Verify a file system, the file system must be unmounted!
fsck (-y or -n) (fs) Pre-answer questions either yes or no !
fsck -p (fs) Will restore primary superblock from backup copy if the
superblock is corrupt.
( or dd count=1 bs=4k skip=31 seek=1 if=/dev/lv00 of=/dev/lv00 )
Mirroring
---------
mklv -y (lv) -c(copies 2 or 3) (vg) (No of PP's) (PV Name optional)
Creates a mirrored named logical volume.
mklvcopy -s n (lv) (copies 2 or 3) (pv)
Creates a copy of a logical volume onto another physical volume. The physical
volume MUST be in the same volume group as the orginal logical volume !
rmlvcopy (lv) (copies 1 or 2) Removes logical volume copies.
rmlvcopy (lv) (copies 1 or 2) (pv) From this pv only!
syncvg -p (pv) Synchronize logical partion copies
syncvg -l (lv)
syncvg -v (vg)
mirrorvg (vg) (pv)
Mirrors the all the logical volumes in a volume group onto a new physical
volume. New physical volume must already be part of the volume group.
chfs -a splitcopy=/backup -a copy=2 /data1
Splits off a copy of a 3 way mirror and mount read only for use as an
offline backup.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
BOOT LOGICAL VOLUME (BLV) / PROCESSORS / KERNEL
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Mirroring does not work with the BLV as it is not a true logical volume,
bosboot must be run against the other disk after mirroring the rootvg.
bootlist -m (normal or service) -o displays bootlist
bootlist -m (normal or service) (list of devices) change bootlist
bootinfo -b Identifies the bootable disk
bootinfo -t Specifies type of boot
bosboot -a -d (/dev/pv) Creates a complete boot image on a physical volume.
mkboot -c -d (/dev/pv) Zero's out the boot records on the physical volume.
savebase -d (/dev/pv) Saves customised ODM info onto the boot device.
lslv -m hd5 Find out which disk the BLV is on.
bootinfo -y Displays which kernel can be used, 32 or 64 bit
genkex Reports all loaded kernel extensions.
lsdev -Cc processor Lists all processors
lsattr -EHl proc0 Displays attributes of processor 0. AIX 5.1L will
display processor clock frequency.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SYSTEM DUMP
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1, AIX 4.2.1 and greater supports system dump to paging space.
2, AIX 4.3.3 and greater supports system dump to mirrored paging space.
3, Primary dump device must be in the rootvg
4, Secondary dump device can be outside rootvg unless it is a paging device.
sysdumpdev -l Lists current dump destination.
sysdumpdev -e Estimates dumpsize of the current system in bytes.
sysdumpdev -L Displays information about the previous dump.
sysdumpstart -p Starts a dump and writes to the primary dump device.
sysdumpstart -s Starts a dump and writes to the secondary dump device.
(MCA machine can also dump if key is in service position and the reset
button is pressed)
sysdumpdev -p (dump device) -P Sets the default dump device, permanently
Analyse dump file :-
echo "stat
status
t -m" | crash /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0
snap -gfkD -o /dev/rmt0 Copy dump to tape to send to IBM support, uses tar.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PAGING SPACE (PS's)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
lsps -a Lists out all paging space
lsps -s Displays total paging and total useage
lsps (ps)
swappon /dev/ps Activates a paging device eg /dev/paging00
swappoff /dev/ps Deactivates a paging device ( AIX 5.x only )
mkps -s(No of PP's) -n -a (vg)
mkps -s(No of PP's) -n -a (vg) (pv)
-n = don't activate/swapon now -a = activate/swapon at reboot
mklv -b n -t paging -y hd6 (vg) (No of PP's) (pv)
Creates paging space using the mklv command.
chps -a n (ps) Turns off paging space.
chps -s(No of PP's) (ps) Increases paging space.
chps -d(No of PP's) (ps) Decreases paging space ( AIX 5.x only )
chlv -n (new name) (old name) Change paging space name
rmps (ps) Remove paging space. PS must have been turned off
and then the system rebooted before it can be removed.
Note : Need to change the swapon entry in /sbin/rc.boot script if you are
changing the default paging space from /dev/hd6. You also need to
do a "bosboot -a -d /dev/hdiskx" before the reboot.
/etc/swapspaces File that lists all paging space devices that are
activated/swapon during reboot.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SCHEDULING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
crontab -l List out crontab entrys
crontab -e Edit crontab entrys
crontab -l > (filename) Output crontab entrys to a file
crontab (filename) Enter a crontab from a file
crontab -r Removes all crontab entrys
crontab -v Displays crontab submission time.
/var/adm/cron/cron.allow File containing users allowed crontab use.
/var/adm/cron/cron.deny File containing users denied crontab use.
/var/adm/cron/crontab Directory containing users crontab entries.
/var/adm/cron/log Cron log file.
at (now + 2 minutes, 13:05, etc) {return} Schedule a job using at
Command or schell script {return}
{CTRL D}
echo "shutdown -Fr" | at now + 1 minute
at -l
atq Lists out jobs scheduled to run via at command
at -r (at job No)
atrm (at job No) Removes an at job scheduled to run.
/var/adm/cron/at.allow File containing users allowed at use.
/var/adm/cron/at.deny File containing users denied at use.
/var/adm/cron/atjobs Directory containing users at entries.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SECURITY
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
nulladm /var/adm/wtmp To recreate/clear down the wtmp file.
groups Lists out the groups that the user is a member of
setgroups Shows user and process groups
chmod abcd (filename) Changes files/directory permissions
Where a is (4 SUID) + (2 SGID) + (1 SVTX)
b is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for owner
c is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for group
d is (4 read) + (2 write) + (1 execute) permissions for others
-rwxrwxrwx -rwxrwxrwx -rwxrwxrwx
||| ||| |||
- - -
| | |
Owner Group Others
-rwSrwxrwx = SUID -rwxrwSrwx = SGID drwxrwxrwt = SVTX
chown (new owner) (filename) Changes file/directory owners
chgrp (new group) (filename) Changes file/directory groups
chown (new owner).(new group) (filename) Do both !!!
umask Displays umask settings
umask abc Changes users umask settings
where ( 7 - a = new file read permissions)
( 7 - b = new file write permissions)
( 7 - c = new file execute permissions)
eg umask 022 = new file permissions of 755 = read write and execute for owner
read ----- and execute for group
read ----- and execute for other
mrgpwd > file.txt Creates a standard password file in file.txt
passwd Change current user password
pwdadm (username) Change a users password
pwdck -t ALL Verifies the correctness of local authentication
lsgroup ALL Lists all groups on the system
mkgroup (new group) Creates a group
chgroup (attribute) (group) Change a group attribute
rmgroup (group) Removes a group
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
USERS / ENVIRONMENT
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
passwd -f Change current users gecos (user description)
passwd -s Change current users shell
chfn (username) Changes users gecos
chsh (username) (shell) Changes users shell
env Displays values of environment variables
printenv
id Displays current user's uid and gid details
id (user) Displays user uid and gid details
whoami Displays current user details
who am i (or who -m)
who Displays details of all users currently logged in.
w
who -b Displays system reboot time
uptime Displays number of users logged in, time since last
reboot, and the machine load averages.
lsuser ALL Lists all users details
lsuser (username) Lists details for user
lsuser -a(attribute) (username or ALL) Lists user attributes
lsuser -a home ALL
mkuser -a(attributes) (newuser) Add a new user
chuser (attributes) (user) Change a user
chuser login=false (user) Lock a user account
rmuser -p (user) Removes a user and all entries in security files
usrck -t ALL Checks all the user entires are okay.
fuser -u (logical volume) Displays processes using the files in that LV
fuser -k /dev/lv02 Will send a kill signal to all processes using
/dev/lv02
lsattr -D -l sys0 -a maxuproc Displays max number of processes per user
chdev -l sys0 -a maxuproc=(number) Changes max number of processes per user
chlang (language) Changes the language settings for system or user.
En_GB = PC850 code pages
en_GB = ISO8859 code pages (Great Britain)
C = posix
su - (user) Switch to new user and change to the new users environment.
su (user) Switch to new user, current environment is propated to the
new shell.



--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
REMOTE USERS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ruser -a -f (user) Adds entry into /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -a -p (host) Adds entry into /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -a -r (host) Adds entry into /etc/hosts.equiv file
ruser -d -f (user) Deletes entry in /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -d -p (host) Deletes entry in /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -d -r (host) Deletes entry in /etc/hosts.equiv file
ruser -s -F Shows all entries in /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -s -P Shows all entries in /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -s -R Shows all entries in /etc/hosts.equiv file
ruser -X -F Deletes all entries in /etc/ftpusers file
ruser -X -P Deletes all entries in /etc/host.lpd file
ruser -X -R Deletes all entries in /etc/hosts.equiv file
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INITTAB
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
telinit S Switches to single user mode.
telinit 2 Switches to multi user mode.
telinit q Re-examines /etc/inittab
lsitab -a Lists all entries in inittab
lsitab (ident eg tty1) Lists the tty1 entry in inittab
mkitab ("details") Creates a new inittab entry
chitab ("details") Ammends an existing inittab entry
rmitab (ident eg tty1) Removes an inittab entry.
chitab "tty1:2:respawn:/usr/bin/getty /dev/tty1"
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ODM
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
odmget -q "name=lp1" CuDv |more Gets lp1 info from pre-defined database.
odmget -q "name-lp1" CuAt |more Gets lp1 info from customised database.
odmdelete -o CuAt -q "name=lp1" Deletes lp1 info from customised db.
odmget -q "name=lp1" CuAt > lp1.CuAt Export ODM info to text file.
odmadd lp1.CuAt Import ODM info from text file.
odmshow CuAt Displays fields and record structures of CuAt
odmchange
odmdrop
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ERROR LOGGING / LOGS
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/usr/lib/errdemon -l Displays errorlog attributes.
/usr/lib/errdemon Starts error logging.
/usr/lib/errstop Stops error logging.
errpt Displays summary errorlog report.
errpt -a Displays detailed errorlog report.
errpt -j (identifier) Displays singe errorlog report.
Note : errorlog classes are H=Hardware S=Software O=Information V=Undetermined
errclear (days) Deletes all error classes in the errorlog.
errclear -d (class) (days) Deletes all error class entries in errlog.
Note : The errclear command will delete all entries older than the numbers of
days specified in the days paramenter. To delete ALL entries used 0.
errlogger "message up to 230 chrs"
Enters an operator notifaction message into the errorlog.
alog -L Lists all logs define in the alog db
alog -o -t (type) Display contents of log (type)
alog -o -t boot
cat /tmp/boot.log | alot -q -t (type) Copies contects of a file to a log
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERFORMANCE MONITORING / TUNING
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
vmstat (drive) (interval) (count) Reports virtual memory statistics.
vmstat hdisk0 5 20
vmstat -s Diplays number of paging events since system start.
vmstat -f Diplays number of forks since system start.
vmstat -i Diplays number of interupts by device since system start.
iostat (drive) (interval) (count) Reports i/o and cpu statistics.
iostat hdisk0 5 20
iostat -d (drive) (interval) (count) Limits report to drive statistics.
iostat -t (interval) (count) Limits report to tty statistics.
sar -u -P ALL 10 10 Displays %usr %sys %wio %idle for all processors
/usr/samples/kernel/vmtune Displays "Virtual Memory Manager" settings
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DOS DISKETTES
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
dosdir Reads directory listing of a diskette
dosdir (directory) Reads directory listing of a named directory
dosread -D/dev/fd0 C41.TXT c41.txt Gets C41.TXT from diskette drive fd0
dosread -D/dev/fd0 DIRECTORY/C41.TXT c41.txt
(-D option can be dropped if using fd0)
doswrite -D/dev/fd0 (unixfile) (dosfile) Writes a file to diskette
dosdel (dosfile) Deletes a dos file on diskette
dosformat Formats the diskette
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SENDMAIL
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sendmail -bi Creates new aliase db from /etc/aliase file.
newaliases
sendmail -bp Displays the contents of the mail queue
mailq
sendmail -q Processe the sendmail queue NOW
sendmail -bt -d0.4 < /dev/null
Prints out sendmail version, compile defines and system information
refresh -s sendmail Restart sendmail, will re-read /etc/sendmail.cf
kill -l (sendmail PID)
stopsrc -s sendmail Stops the sendmail daemon
startsrc -s sendmail "-bd -q30" Starts the sendmail daemon

HP-UX networking related tools and commands

As my journey continues to exploring HP-UX I found couple of nice utilities and tools to configure and administrate HP-UX networking subsystem.
FILES
  • /etc/hosts - Hosts configuration file (resolve hosts and IPs)
  • /etc/rc.config.d/netconf – IP address, routeing address and hostname stored in this file
SCRIPTS
  • /etc/init.d/net start – Use to start, stop network service
HPUX Commands
(a) Display lan interface info:
# lanscan
(b) All in one lan configuration utility (lan0 is first Ethernet interface) to configure and view the system IP address:
# ifconfig lan0 - Display IP info such as IP address netmask etc.
# ifconfig lan0 up - Up network interface (allow traffic)
# ifconfig lan0 down - Down network interactive (deny traffc)
# ifconfig lan0 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 up - Setup/change IP adddress
(c) Displaying host name
# hostname
(d) Arp administration (cache)
# arp -a
(e) Display routing table/info:
# netstat -nr
(f) Define new route:
# route add default 192.168.1.254 1
(g) HP's LAN diagnostic tool
# lanadmin
(h) Test a remote host connectivity
ping host.mycorp.com
(i) Setup various lan properties, dns client, NIS client configuration etc using GUI tool:
# sam
# set_parms
(j) Check dns connectivity:
$ nslookup www.google.co.uk

How to: HP-UX UNIX Backup and Recover Data to Tape Device

Q. One of my responsibilities is backing up UNIX server. How do I backup data under HP-UX UNIX? How do I use mt, fbackup and frecover commands to perform full and incremental backups?

A. HP-UX offers various commands just like any other UNIX system to backup file system, data and applications such as
tar command
a] dump / restore command (HFS filesystem only)
b] vxdump / vxrestore (vxfs filesystem only)
c] cpio command
d] fbackup / frecover command
e] dd command
f] tar command
g] make_net_recovery or make_tape_recovery commands

HP-UX Tape device names

First device will have name such as /dev/rmt/0m, /dev/rmt/1m and so on.
  1. Raw magnetic tape interface - /dev/rmt/*
  2. Default tape interface - /dev/rmt/0mnb

HP-UX Tape - mt ~ manipulating program

mt command winds the tape in the requested direction (forward or backward), stopping after the specified count EOF marks or records are passed. If count is not specified, one is assumed. Each EOF mark counts as one record. When winding backwards, the tape always stops at the BOT marker, regardless of the number remaining in count.See mt command man page for more information. For example, Rewind the tape associated with the device file /dev/rmt/0mnb:
# mt -f /dev/rmt/0mnb rew

How do I backup data with fbackup command?

Backup /data directory to /dev/rmt/0m, enter:
# fbackup -i /data -I index.data -f /dev/rmt/0m
Where,
  • -i /data : Backup /data directory. There is no limit on how many times the -i option can be specified i.e. -i /data -i /home -i /path/to/something
  • -I index.data : index.data specifies the name of the on-line index file to be generated. It consists of one line for each file backed up during the session. Each line contains the file size, the volume number on which that file resides, and the file name. If the -I option is omitted, no index file is generated.
  • -f /dev/rmt/0m : Specify tape device name
  • -e /tmp : Exclude /tmp from backup
  • -g /var/adm/fbackupfiles/hporabox11.backup.list.txt : File that contains a list of files / dirs to be included / excluded from the tape backup
  • -u : Update the database of past backups so that it contains the backup level, the time of the beginning and end of the session, and the graph file used for this fbackup session. Only use this if you are using -g /path/to/file option.
Using the normal tape location to do a full backup, insert a new tape and enter:
# fbackup -f /dev/rmt/0m -i -v
Using the normal tape location to do a full backup but exclude /tmp and /cdrom /nfs directories, insert a new tape and enter:
# fbackup -f /dev/rmt/0m -i / -e /tmp -e /cdrom -e /nfs -v
You can also create a text file that contains a list of all files and directories to be included or excluded from the backup. For example, backup full file system but exclude /tmp, /cdrom and /nfs, enet:
# cd /var/adm/fbackupfiles
# vi hporabox11.backup.list.txt

Append following list
i /
e /tmp
e /nfs
e /cdrom

Save and close the file. To backup enter,
# fbackup -f /dev/rmt/0m -g /var/adm/fbackupfiles/hporabox11.backup.list.txt -v

How do I perform full and incremental backups?

The -0-9 option used to specify backup level. This single-digit number is the backup level. Level 0 indicates a full backup. Higher levels are generally used to perform incremental backups. When doing an incremental backup of a particular graph at a particular level, the database of past backups is searched to find the date of the most recent backup of the same graph that was done at a lower level. If no such entry is found, the beginning of time is assumed. All files in the graph that have been modified since this date are backed.
First, perform full backup, enter:
# fbackup -f /dev/rmt/0m -u -0 -g /var/adm/fbackupfiles/hporabox11.backup.list.txt -v
To perform incremental backup, enter:
# fbackup -f /dev/rmt/0m -u -1 -g /var/adm/fbackupfiles/hporabox11.backup.list.txt -v

How do I view contents of an fbackup tape?

Type the following command:
# frecover -f /dev/rmt/0m -x -N -v

How do I backup data with frecover command?

To restore all files and directories from tape, enter:
# frecover -f /dev/rmt/0m -r -v
To restore selected files or directories use -i /path option. For example, just restore /home/vivek directory, enter:
# frecover -f /dev/rmt/0m -x -v -i /home/vivek
Where,
  • -r : Recovery all data from tape
  • -x : Extracted / recover selected files / dires only specified by -i option
  • -i /path/to/file : Recover only this file or directory
  • -v : Verbose output

How do I verify tape backup?

The -N option (no recovery) prevent frecover from actually recovering any files onto disk, but read the backup as if it was, in fact, recovering the data from the backup, producing the same output that it would on a normal recovery. This option is useful for verifying backup media contents in terms of validity (block checksum errors are reported), and contents (a listing of files can be produced by using the -N and -v options together). Note that the listing of files produced with the -N and -v options requires the reading of the entire backup, but is therefore a more accurate reflection of the backup's contents than the index stored at the beginning of the backup (which was created at the start of the backup session, and is not changed during the course of the backup).
# frecover -f /dev/rmt/0m -N
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