Windows-(XP-7-Vista)



                 Windows Keyboard Shortcuts

We all are too familiar to use mouse specially those who work on windows machine. Along with mouse there are some kyboard shortcuts which are very handy to use. I list here general keyboard shortcuts with their works.


60 WINDOWS KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS YOU MIGHT NOT KNOW

Mastering the keyboard will not only increase your navigation speed but it can also help with
 wrist fatigue. Here are some lesser known Windows shortcuts to help you become a
keyboard ninja.

             

             How to get Screen Shots

Click Print Screen Button [Prnt Scrn] -> Start -> Run -> MsPaint -> Control + V
 Windows Key + R -> To Launch Run
 
 
WindowsKey + E -> To Launch Explorer


1)CTRL+C: To copy a text, file, folder, image, video etc. 

2)CTRL+X: To cut a text, file, folder, image, video etc.

3)CTRL+V: To paste a text, file, folder, image, video etc.

4)CTRL+Z: Undo the previous act. Like undo copy or delete.

5)DELETE: To delete a text, file, folder, image, video etc.

6)SHIFT+DELETE: Delete selected item permanently without placing the item in the Recycle Bin. By default after delete an item it resides in recyclebin.

7)CTRL while dragging an item: Copy selected item. 

8)CTRL+SHIFT while dragging an item: Create shortcut to selected item. 

9)F2: Rename selected item. Press an item and then press F2 key.

10)CTRL+RIGHT ARROW: Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next word. Helpful for editing quickly to pass over a word.

11)CTRL+LEFT ARROW: Move the cursor insertion point to the beginning of the previous word. 

12)CTRL+DOWN ARROW: Move the insertion point to the beginning of the next paragraph. Helpful for quick editing through a file. 

13)CTRL+UP ARROW: Move the insertion point to the beginning of the previous paragraph. Helpful for quick editing through a file.

14)CTRL+SHIFT with any of the arrow keys: Highlight a block of text. Press both CTRL and SHIFT key and then press any movement key helps to select a block of text which is helpful for editing. 

15)SHIFT with any of the arrow keys: Select more than one item in a window or on the desktop, or select text within a document. 

16)CTRL+A: Select all texts if your cursor is within a file and if you are within a windows select all files and folders within that window. 

17)F3: Search for a file or folder. Actually search prompt is invoked.
18)ALT+ENTER: View properties for the selected item. 

19)ALT+F4: Close the active item, or quit the active program. 

20)ALT+ENTER: View the properties of the selected object. 

21)ALT+SPACEBAR: Opens the shortcut menu for the active window. 

22)CTRL+F4: Close the active document in programs that allow you to have multiple documents open simultaneously. 

23)ALT+TAB: Switch between open items. 

24)ALT+ESC: Cycle through items in the order they were opened. 

25)F6: Cycle through screen elements in a window or on the desktop. 

26)F4: Display the Address bar list in My Computer or Windows Explorer. 

27)SHIFT+F10: Display the shortcut menu for the selected item. 

28)ALT+SPACEBAR: Display the System menu for the active window. 

29)CTRL+ESC: Display the Start menu. 

30)ALT+Underlined letter in a menu name: Display the corresponding menu. 

31)Underlined letter in a command name on an open menu: Carry out the corresponding command. 

32)F10: This functional key activate the menu bar in the active program. 

33)RIGHT ARROW: Open the next menu to the right, or open a submenu. If you are in window then scroll to next item. If you are in file then to go next item/letter.

34)LEFT ARROW: Open the next menu to the left, or close a submenu. 

35)F5: Refresh the active window. This is the active windows is loaded again.

36)BACKSPACE: View the folder one level up in My Computer or Windows Explorer. 

37)ESC: Cancel the current task or used to close a pop-up.

38)SHIFT: when you insert a CD into the CD-ROM drive Prevent the CD from automatically playing.

39)CTRL+ALT+DEL: Open task manager window.

40)CTRL+SHIFT+ESC: Open task manager window.

Global Windows Shortcuts
Win+Win+1, 2, 3, 4, etc. will launch each program in your taskbar. It is helpful then to keep
your most used programs at the beginning of your task bar so you can open them one right after another. This also works in Windows Vista for the quick launch icons.


 Win+Alt+1, 2, 3, etc. will open the jump list for each program in the taskbar. You can
then use your arrows to select which jump list option you want to open.
Win+T will cycle through taskbar programs. This is similar to just hovering over the
item with your mouse but you can launch the program with Space or Enter.
Win+Home minimizes all programs except current the window. This is similar to the
Aero shake and can be disabled with the same registry key.
Win+B selects the system tray which isn’t always useful but can come in very handy if
your mouse stops working.
Win+Up/Down maximizes and restores down the current window so long as that window
has the option to be maximized. It is exactly the same as clicking on the middle button on
your windows.
Alt+Esc is like Alt+Tab but switches windows in the order they were opened and does not
have the fancy window preview overlay.
Win+Pause/Break will open your system properties window. This can be helpful if you
need to see the name of a computer or simple system statistics.
Ctrl+Esc can be used to open the start menu but will not work as a Windows key
replacement for other shortcuts.
Ctrl+Shift+Esc will open the task manager without needing to hit Ctrl+Alt+Del first.
Alt+Space will open the window system menu which can be used to maximize (x), minimize
 (n), close (c), or move (m) the window
 which can be especially helpful if your window is somehow off-screen.
This shortcut can also be helpful with windows that don’t close with the Alt+F4
 shortcut such as the command window.

Windows Explorer Shortcuts

Here are handy shortcuts built into Windows Explorer which may have similar features
 in other programs too.
Alt+Up will navigate up one folder level since the up arrow on the menu bar was removed in Windows Vista. Alternatively, you can also
 make Backspace go up one folder level with a handy AutoHotKey script.
Shift+F10 opens the contextual or “right click” menu for a file/folder. This can be very
handy for speed especially if you know which option you want to select. Look for an
underlined letter in each option to know which letter you can press for faster access.
Shift+Del deletes a file without sending it to the recycle bin because who wants to
 empty their recycle bin anyway?
Ctrl+Shift+N creates a new folder in your current directory.
Alt+Enter opens the file properties so you can view file size, sharing settings, and
creation date.
F2 renames a file or folder.
F3 will open explorer and select the search bar. If you already have an explorer window
open it will highlight the search bar. In some programs it will also open the search
dialog to search within that program.

F6 cycles objects in the current window. In explorer this will cycle between the location bar,
 options bar, left pane, and right pane. It also works with varying success in other programs.
F10 toggles the file menu in explorer.

 

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Performing a New Installation of Windows 7

The three basic types of clean installation procedures are as follows:
• Install on a brand new disk or computer system



• Erase the disk, format it, and install
• Install into a new directory for dual-booting
If you intend to use either of the first two methods, be sure your computer can boot from a DVD (most newer computers support booting from a DVD drive). Doing so might require changing the drive boot order in the BIOS or CMOS, but try it first as-is. With no floppy disk inserted and a clean hard disk, try the DVD drive next. The Windows 7 DVD is bootable and should run the Setup program automatically.
Installation takes 15 to 30 minutes, depending on the speed of your machine. Refer to the following sections if you have questions about any steps in this process.
Note: Windows 7 automatically applies the NTFS format to any disk partition upon which it is installed during a clean installation.

Typical Clean Setup Procedure

If you're installing into an empty partition and you can boot an operating system that is supported for the purpose of Setup (Windows Vista or XP), just boot up, insert the DVD and choose Install Now from the resulting dialog box. Then you can follow the installation step-by-step procedure.
If Windows doesn't detect the DVD automatically upon insertion, you must run the Setup program, setup.exe, from the Start, Run dialog box (after opening the Run dialog box, type D:/setup.exe; on Vista use the Start menu Search box instead [using the corect letter for your DVD drive if it isn't D]). The setup.exe application is located in the Sources directory on the DVD. After the Setup routine starts, you can follow the installation procedure step by step.
If your computer has a blank hard disk or your current OS isn't supported, this process changes. You must launch the installation process from the Windows 7 DVD (this works only if you can boot from the DVD drive). Setup automatically runs if you boot from the DVD.
Yet another setup method involves the network. To initiate a network installation, you must create a network share of the distribution DVD or a copy of the DVD on a hard drive. The destination system must have network access, and the user account must have at least read access to the installation files. Initiate Setup by executing setup.exe from the network share. For example, from the Start, Run command, or the Vista Start menu Search box, type this path: \\\sources\Setup. Setup recognizes an over-the-network installation and automatically copies all files from the network share to the local system before the first reboot.
Tip: All versions of Windows 7, 32- or 64-bit, are included on the same DVD. The product key that you enter during setup determines which actual version of Windows 7 you end up with after the installation completes. Keep your Windows 7 DVD and product key in a safe location after you've performed your installation. It's useful for repairs of all kinds.
Windows 7 installation screen
Installing Windows 7 from an existing Windows installation.


Clean Install from DVD, Step by Step

A typical clean installation (on a blank hard disk) step-by-step procedure is as follows:
1. Insert the Windows 7 DVD into your computer's DVD-ROM drive, and restart the computer. Windows 7 Setup should start automatically. If Setup does not start automatically, ensure that your computer is configured to boot from the DVD drive.
2. You are asked to select regional options for the Windows 7 installation. Make your selections and click Next to continue.
3. In the next dialog box, you are prompted to start the installation. Click Install Now to begin the installation. This produces a screen that tells you that Setup is starting.
4. In the Software License Terms dialog box, ensure that you read and understand the End User Licensing Agreement (EULA). When you're ready, select the I Accept the License Terms option and click Next to continue.
5. In the Which Type of Installation Do You Want? dialog box, shown in Figure 2.10, you can select only the Custom (Advanced) option because you're performing a new installation on a blank hard disk. Click Custom (Advanced) to continue.
6. In the Where Do You Want to Install Windows? dialog box, select the partition onto which you'll install Windows 7. When you're ready to proceed, click Next. If you need to provide a RAID or SCSI driver, now is the time to do it.
7. The Installing Windows dialog box appears and gives you an updated status of the upgrade process.
8. After some time, your computer restarts and the newly installed Windows 7 loads. Windows 7 resumes the installation process. Before the restart, a warning appears.
9. After the restart, you'll see a notification telling you that Windows 7 is preparing the new installation. Windows 7 moves back into a graphical display after a few minutes and tells you it's updating Registry settings and starting services, after which it lets you know it's completing the installation.
10. After completing the installation, Windows 7 asks you to provide a username and a computer name. After providing this information, click Next to continue.
Note: Always choose a computer name that is unique. It must differ from any other computer, workgroup, or domain names on the network. You'll probably want to enter your name or a name of your own choice, although Setup supplies a recommendation. You might want to coordinate naming your computer with your LAN administrator, if you have one.


Windows 7 installation options
Figure 2.10: For new installations, only the Custom (Advanced) option is available.
11. In the next dialog box, you are asked to supply a password for your user account (which you must reenter as a double-check) and a password hint to help you remember that string. After making your selections, click Next to continue.
12. In the Type Your Windows Product Key dialog box, enter the product key that came with your Windows 7 DVD. I recommend that you leave the Automatically Activate Windows When I'm Online option checked to take care of Windows Product Activation within the three days after the Windows 7 installation. After entering this information, click Next to continue.
You can also leave the Product Key box blank. If you do this, you'll be asked which version of Windows 7 you want to install, and you can select any version from Starter to Ultimate. You'll have to provide a valid product key, however, within 30 days for whatever version you install or else Windows 7 will nag you regularly and often about registration. (If you install a slip-streamed copy of Windows 7 Service Pack 1, or use the Windows Update service to upgrade to SP-1, you'll be reminded to register rather than receiving constant nags.)
You can use the no-key method to play around with different versions of Windows 7, but be careful if you select a version for which you don't have a key; you must perform a clean install every time you reinstall Windows 7, and you must eventually install a version for which you have a license, or erase it. You'll lose your applications and data every time you reinstall.
Caution: You should definitely not play with alternate versions if you are upgrading from an older version of Windows. After the first such install, there's no way to go back and repeat the upgrade with your licensed version of Windows 7.
13. In the Help Protect Your Computer and Improve Windows Automatically dialog box, you configure the base security for Windows 7. In most cases, you should select Use Recommended Settings. To make your selection, click it.
14. In the Review Your Time and Date Settings dialog box, select your time zone, daylight savings option, and current date options. Click Finish to complete the upgrade process.
15. In the Select Your Computer's Current Location dialog box, shown in Figure 2.17, tell Windows where you'll be using your computer. As with Windows Vista, Windows 7 configures your network adapters for DHCP and does not ask you what to do.
16. Windows prompts you one last time-after you click Start, you're finished with the installation.
17. After a few more minutes, you are finally presented with your brand new Windows 7 login screen, as shown in Figure 2.18. Congratulations, you've completed the installation of Windows 7!
Tip: If you plan to perform a clean installation on your computer that is currently running some earlier Windows version, be sure to get your data and other files off the computer beforehand. You can perform this process manually, or you can opt to use Windows Easy Transfer to automatically copy all your files and settings to an external hard drive or network location. After the clean installation of Windows 7 has completed, you can run Windows Easy Transfer again to reload your files and settings on the new installation of Windows 7.


Windows 7 location setup
Figure 2.17: The different location choices correspond to different levels of security on your Windows 7 computer.

Windows 7 log-inscreen
Figure 2.18: The Windows 7 login screen is much different than previous versions.

Clean Install from Inside Windows, Step by Step

If you initiate the Setup routine from within Windows XP or Windows Vista, the step-by-step procedure is as follows:
1. Insert the Windows 7 DVD into your computer's DVD-ROM drive. It should AutoPlay and present the Install Windows dialog box. If not, locate and double-click the setup.exe program in the Sources folder on the DVD.
2. To download, install, and use the Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor, click the Check Compatibility Online link. Otherwise, to begin the in-place upgrade to Windows 7, click the Install Now link.
3. In the Get Important Updates for Installation dialog box, you are asked whether you want to download updates to the Windows 7 install files. Typically, for computers that have an active Internet connection, you're better off getting the updates. Make your selection by clicking it.
4. In the Please Read the License Terms dialog box, ensure that you read and understand the End User Licensing Agreement (EULA). When you're ready, select the I Accept the License Terms option and click Next to continue.
5. In the Type Your Product Key for Activation dialog box, you are asked to enter your Windows 7 product key. Enter the key and ensure that the Automatically Activate Windows When I'm Online option is checked, to enable Windows Product Activation. After entering the product key, click Next to continue.
6. In the Which Type of Installation Do You Want? dialog box, shown previously in Figure 2.10, select Custom (Advanced) because you're performing a clean installation here on top of an existing Windows XP installation.
7. In the Where Do You Want to Install Windows? dialog box, shown in Figure 2.20, select the partition onto which you'll install Windows 7. When you're ready to proceed, click Next.
8. The Setup application warns you that the selected partition contains files from another Windows installation, as shown in Figure 2.21. After you read this information, click OK to continue.
9. The Installing Windows dialog box appears and updates the status for the upgrade process.
10. From here, the rest of the process is just like that for a clean installation (on a blank hard disk) above, starting with step 9. After some time, your computer restarts and the newly installed Windows 7 loads.

Windows 7 partitions
Figure 2.20: You need to select an existing partition for the installation of Windows 7.

Windows 7 setup
Figure 2.21: Windows 7 Setup moves all your old Windows files to a new directory - you must delete that directory later to reclaim that disk space.

Multibooting Windows 7

In today's world of advanced OSs and low hard-disk prices, it certainly is not unusual for some users to experiment with different OSs. The world of consumer computing is ripe with many options. Along with just plain curiosity and experimentation, here are other good reasons to switch among or between OSs:
• Many users use two or more OSs because of application-compatibility issues. Hardware support issues occur, too: Windows 2000 and Windows XP might have drivers for older hardware that Windows 7 doesn't support.
• Some users want to run specific applications or games in an optimal environment for their use.
• A developer might swap among Windows XP Professional, Windows Vista, and maybe even several different versions of Windows 7, to test application compatibility.
• Website developers need to use different OS versions to see how pages look and behave with corresponding web browser versions.
Other than buying multiple computers, there are two ways to accommodate such needs. You can multiboot (that is, select the desired OS at bootup) or you can run one OS in a virtual computer inside another OS (that is, in a special application program that lets the alternate OS think it's running on a PC of its own). A virtual approach can be quite useful.
Windows 7 uses a boot scheme introduced with Windows Vista based on so-called Boot Configuration Data, usually abbreviated as BCD. BCD is more complex than and incompatible with the boot scheme used in previous versions of Windows. While Windows 2000 and XP let you set up a boot menu from which you could select any version of Windows, as well as other OSs, Windows 7's boot menu only lets you select Windows Vista or 7 versions, or something else, and all something else selections must be managed separately.
As a result of the boot manager changes, if you want to set up a computer that can boot several different versions of Windows and/or other OSs, you need to follow these guidelines:
  • You must install each OS into a separate disk volume (drive letter). To get these separate volumes, you can create multiple partitions on one disk drive, or use multiple disk drives, or a combination of these two organizing principles.
  • If you install multiple versions of Windows 7 on the same computer, the same rule applies: You must install each version in a separate disk volume.
  • Install versions of Windows starting with the oldest and working toward the newest. For example, to set up a computer that can boot into Windows Me, Windows XP, and Windows 7, install Me first, then XP, then Windows 7. Youmust install Windows 7 last!
  • To install OSs other than Windows, such as Linux, you might need a boot manager that can recognize all the different OSs in use. Linux offers a choice of several different boot managers. Their use is beyond the scope of this book, but you should be able to find instructions on the Web for multibooting Linux and Windows 7.
To create a multiboot installation on a computer that already has Windows Vista installed, follow this procedure. These steps are quite similar to the clean install procedure described earlier.
1. Insert the Windows 7 DVD into your computer's DVD-ROM drive. It should AutoPlay and present the Install Windows dialog box. If not, locate the setup.exe program in the Sources folder on the DVD, and double-click it.
(Alternatively, you can restart your computer and boot from the DVD.)
2. To download, install, and use the Windows 7 Upgrade Advisor, as detailed previously, click the Check Compatibility Online link. Otherwise, to begin the in-place upgrade to Windows 7, click the Install Now link.
3. In the Get Important Updates for Installation dialog box, you are asked whether you want to download updates to the Windows 7 install files. Typically, for computers that have an active Internet connection, you are better off getting the updates. Make your selection by clicking it.
4. In the Please Read the License Terms dialog box, ensure that you read and understand the End User Licensing Agreement (EULA). When you're ready, select the I Accept the License Terms option, and click Next to continue.
5. In the Type Your Product Key for Activation dialog box, you are asked to enter your Windows 7 product key. Enter the key and ensure that the Automatically Activate Windows When I'm Online option is checked, to enable Windows Product Activation. After entering the product key, click Next to continue.
6. In the Which Type of Installation Do You Want? dialog box, select Custom (Advanced) because here you're performing a clean, multiboot installation of Windows 7, not an upgrade.
7. In the Where Do You Want to Install Windows? dialog box, shown in Figure 2.24, select the partition into which you'll install Windows 7. This must be a partition that does not already have a version of Windows installed on it. When you're ready to proceed, click Next.
8. Follow the rest of the procedure described previously under Typical Clean Setup Procedure, from step 6 on through the end.
9. If you plan on installing another version of Windows 7 on this same computer, you'll want to rename the current version's title in the boot menu.
10. You can check out the new Windows 7 boot menu, shown in Figure 2.25, on the next restart of your computer.


Windows 7 partitions
Figure 2.24: You must select an empty partition for multiboot installation of Windows 7.

Windows 7 boot menu
Figure 2.25: The Windows 7 boot menu has changed a lot from Windows XP but not much from Vista.
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